Trans Cultural Healthcare Discussion

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Trans Cultural Healthcare DiscussionORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON  Trans Cultural Healthcare DiscussionRead chapter 13 and 28 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentations. Read chapter 28 in Davis Plus Online Website. Once done, write an essay discussing the health beliefs of both heritages and if there is any similarity in both culture beliefs. Also, discuss how their beliefs influence the delivery of evidence-based healthcare focusing on the nursing care. Trans Cultural Healthcare DiscussionYour assignment must have a minimum of 700 words APA style, 3 evidence-based references no older than 5 years (excluding the class the class textbook, culture_ch13.pptculture_ch28__1_.pptTranscultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Filipino Americans Larry Purnell, PhD, RN, FAAN Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Overview/Heritage Almost 2 million in the United States Literally all speak English and Tagalog (Pilipino), and many speak Spanish and another language Predominantly from Malayan ancestry with influence and mixtures from other Asian groups, Spanish, and Arab Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Overview/Heritage Continued Americanization of the Philippines began after the Spanish–American War Immigrant Filipinos make up the majority of Filipinos in the United States Unrestricted immigration in the early 1900s then very restricted in 1924 because of the Exclusionist policies of Immigration Act of 1924 Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Overview/Heritage Continued Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 eliminated the quota system for the Philippines resulting in large numbers of middle class and professionals coming to the United States Included relatives of Filipinos living in the United States Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Overview/Heritage Continued First group were primarily single men who were brought to the United States to work in Alaskan canneries, farms in California, and plantations in Hawaii and endured much discrimination Most were restricted from owning or leasing land and could not become US citizens Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Overview/Heritage Continued After WW II, many Filipino Veterans immigrated and settled on the West Coast Now more women than men immigrate to the United States Well educated immigrants continue to have difficulty in finding similar work in the United States unless they are in the healthcare field Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communications Tagalog is the national language with English the second official language Eight other dialects are spoken as well as Spanish Taglish is common among immigrants and American born Filipinos Highly contextual communication patterns Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communications Continued Pakikisama—smoother interpersonal relationships and sacrifice exact meaning External or outsider communication and internal or one-of-us communication proceeds on different levels Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communications Continued Interacting level Participating level Conforming level Adjusting level Understanding and acceptance level Getting involved level Being one with level Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communications Continued An exclusive “we” and an inclusive “we” Trans Cultural Healthcare DiscussionEye contact varies with age, education, and acculturation Many ways to say yes, but how do you say no? Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Communications Continued Respect the past, enjoy the present, and hope for the future Filipino time for social events, clock time if really important events, business, and work usually Many names are Spanish in origin One of the middle names is the mother’s maiden name Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition ClickerCheck Many Filipinos speak Tag-Lish, which is a. A combination of Tagalog and English. b. The indigenous language of the Philippines. c. The official language of the Philippines. d. A combination of Spanish and English. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Correct Answer Correct answer: A Tag-Lish is a combination of Tagalog and English. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles Matriarchal before Spanish, then Patriarchal, now more egalitarian in decision making Gender neutral pronouns causing confusion with he and she in English Respect is a dominant family value and older children may assume the role of parent Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles Continued Honor and care for parents or brings shame to the family Nuclear family is dominant although polygamous families exist among Moslem Filipinos Extended family members are important Education is paramount for children and parents sacrifice so at least one child will become educated and help the others if necessary Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles Continued Respect is shown to elders with deferential behavior Grandparents become surrogate parents for their grandchildren in the United States especially Advance degree brings higher social status Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Family Roles Continued Filipino organizations targeted to gays and lesbians Chastity is valued premaritally Single parenting becoming more common in the United States Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Biocultural Ecology Varying skin tones of brown and tan with dark eyes, flat nose bridges, and mildly flared nostrils Most are of smaller stature than European Americans More difficult to determine age than in European Americans because of youthful face Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Biocultural Ecology Continued Endemic conditions in the Philippines include malaria, tuberculosis, gastrointestinal disorders, due to parasitosis, cardiovascular related disease, cancer, respiratory diseases, nutritional diseases, HTN, and diabetes Sensitive to the effects of alcohol and require lower doses of neuroleptics Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Nutrition Fundamental form of socialization Trans Cultural Healthcare DiscussionAny occasion is an occasion for food Wide variety of foods and prepared in a variety of ways Outsiders are served western food Insiders are served Filipino food To help in the kitchen you are really an insider Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Nutrition Continued Rice may be served at every meal, most common meats are fish, chicken, and pork Diet varies among urban and rural areas Lactose intolerance among adults Milk in cooked desserts is tolerated well Salt and vinegar are used frequently Moderation in food is considered important Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Nutrition Continued Considered polite to leave some food on your plate Herbs are grown in many homes to be used for cooking and for medicinal purposes Newer immigrants are at risk of nutritional deficiencies if unfamiliar with American foods Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Childbearing Family Catholic religion influences birth control practices —rhythm method only Abortion is considered a sin, carries a stigma, and leads to back door abortions Pregnancy is a time for pampering and attention from entire family Mother of pregnant woman has a very special role Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Childbearing Family Continued Consult healthcare provider plus a massage therapist for advice Reluctant to take any medicine during pregnancy, even vitamins for fear of harming the fetus Satisfy cravings so baby will not be marked with the craving Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Childbearing Family Continued Should be protected from a sudden fright for fear it will harm the fetus Mother rather than husband may be the coach during birthing Traditional may not want to bathe but engage in sponge bath and aromatic oils Soup increases lactation Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Death Rituals Three days to week for wake after death to await for family to come together—varies in United States because of work schedules Plenty of food available and family support Nine days of novenas in the home or church are common Ritualistic mourning wearing black for one year Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Death Rituals Continued Burial is the most common but cremation is okay Body or ashes may be returned to the Philippines Open expression of emotions and may include fainting Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Spirituality 80% Christian with 90% of them Roman Catholic 5% practices Islam Many returning to Bathala, ancestral religion with a spiritualist guide who is usually a woman Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Spirituality Continued Novenas and prayers are commonly said for the sick person Good health comes to those who are in good with God and is the “Will of God” Many are considered fatalistic, life is up to God, there is little one can do to change life circumstances and the forces of nature, monsoons, tides, volcanoes, earthquakes, etc. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Healthcare Practices Adhere to Western medicine and traditional practices simultaneously Health is the result of balance and moderation and God’s Will v Adequate sleep, rest, nutrition, and cleanliness are important for good health Aromatic baths restore balance Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Healthcare Practices Continued In the Philippines many medicines can be purchased over-the-counter May hoard and share medicine Many do not seek care until the illness is advanced Many distrust the healthcare environment In the Philippines, one pays for testing before the testing is done Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Healthcare Practices Continued Protect oneself from wind and cold Avoid extremes of hot and cold—balance Introduce changes gradually Pain is part of life and may be atonement for immoral behavior and leads to stoicism Mental illness carries a stigma, is hereditary and may affect one’s ability for a spouse Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Healthcare Practices Continued Mental illness may be severe before help is sought —take care of family member at home Somatization of symptoms is common Important to maintain self-esteem and self-image for self and family Able to enter the sick role easily Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition ClickerCheck Mrs. Lino, age 38 years, has been seeing a traditional Filipino healer for her pregnancy complications. A Filipino traditional healer is a. Galang. b. Utang na loob. c. Hilot. d. Hiya. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Correct Answer Correct answer: C A hilot is a traditional Filipino healer. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian American Culture Larry Purnell, PhD, RN, FAAN Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Overview/Heritage The Egyptian people have a strong sense of identity with their country and demonstrate pride in coming from such an old civilization. The Arab conquest of Egypt around 641 AD spread the Islamic and Arabic culture among the Egyptians. This long history and the diversity of populations have influenced the value systems, beliefs, and explanatory frameworks Egyptians use in their daily lives. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Overview/Heritage More than 1 million people of Egyptian ancestry live in the United States. The highest concentrations are in New York, Los Angeles, Washington, DC; Chicago, and San Francisco. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Communication The dominant language of Egyptians is Arabic. The written Arabic language is the same in all Arab countries, but spoken Arabic is dialectical and does not necessarily follow proper Arabic grammar. For Egyptians in the United States, English is the language of communication in business and contact with American society. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Communication Respect is expected when speaking with those who are older or in higher social positions. Politeness, adab, is related to what is appropriate, expected, and socially sanctioned. Truth and reality may be sacrificed for what is appropriate and polite. Sharing negative news directly or asking for Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Communication Egyptians tend to be in touch with their inner feelings and are highly expressive of them. Egyptians tend to share problems and the most minute details about their lives with their trusted circle of insiders. Because their personal space tends to be small, vEgyptians stand and sit very close to each other. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Communication Men, whether strangers or acquaintances, touch each other. Similarly, it is acceptable for women to touch each other. Women tend to keep male friends as far away as male strangers. Traditionally, it is unacceptable for women and men to touch each other unless they are close family members. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Communication Touch between the sexes is accepted in private and only between husbands and wives, parents and children, and adult brothers and sisters. Devout Muslim men and women do not touch each other, even a handshake is not practiced. In these situations, a nod of the head substitutes for a physical greeting. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Communication Egyptians speak with their mouth, face, hands, and their entire bodies communicating the meaning of their language. Their facial expressions are mirrors of their internal processes and reflections of their inner evaluations of their situations. A wide-eyed gaze to a child means “stop it now.” A wink to an adult means “watch what you are saying.” Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Communication Egyptians think of those who do not maintain eye contact or who have shifty eye contact as people who should not be trusted. Among the more traditional, women and men who are strangers may avoid eye contact out of modesty and respect for religious rules. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Communication Most older Egyptians cherish the past, whereas most younger Egyptians live in the present. Social time takes a high priority, and engagements are not concluded because of other scheduled appointments; therefore, guests are expected to arrive 1 to 2 hours late. However, they are punctual for business engagements and meetings. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Communication Children are given a first name; the father’s first name is used as the middle name; the last name is the family name. A person is called formally by the first name, such as Mr. William. Respect is demonstrated in the use of titles. Older people should never be called by their first name without an adjective or title. The accepted U.S. custom of addressing clients by their first name may be insulting to Egyptians. Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Family Roles and Organization The demands of life on immigrants and nuclear families promote sharing responsibilities and decision-making. To preserve traditional roles that contribute to a more egalitarian family organization, family roles change considerably after immigration. The absence of an extended family results in greater fluidity in roles and participation in all family matters. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Family Roles and Organization Social status is gained through professional accomplishments, financial success, and involvement in Egyptian community affairs. Children are treasured in the present and viewed as security for their parents’ future. During their early years, they are expected to be studious and goal-oriented, respectful, and loyal to the family. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Family Roles and Organization When children become adults, they are expected to take care of their elderly parents. Religious beliefs and teachings forbid premarital sex and adultery for both Egyptian Muslims and Christians.Trans Cultural Healthcare Discussion The greatest calamity that may happen in an Egyptian household is to have a daughter lose her virginity before marriage. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Family Roles and Organization This fear stems from a potential lack of marriageability of the daughter, loss of face for the father, and gossip within the community. Egyptian children are expected to marry Egyptians. However, because many secondgeneration Egyptian Americans do not reside in areas with an abundance of Egyptians, crosscultural marriages are becoming more common. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Family Roles and Organization As Egyptians grow older, they are treated with gentleness and are never made to believe that their usefulness is limited because of retirement. Their children and extended families are obligated to care for them. Women gain status with age and with childbearing. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Family Roles and Organization Many older people have a morbid fear of being forced to move into a nursing home. Many consider returning to their home country to avoid the humiliation of aging in America. Divorce is not considered a stigma but an unfortunate situation and one in which the children pay the greatest price. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition Egyptian Family Roles and Organization Communal and same-sex families are a concept that does not exist in Egyptian societies. Same-sex relationships are rarely disclosed. To be gay or lesbian is considered immoral and is not accepted by any Arab or Middle Eastern religions. To discover a gay son or lesbian daughter is akin to a catastrophic event for Egyptian Americans. 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