Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses Paper

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Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperStrategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperAPA formatted (double-spaced, 12-pt Times New Roman font or 11-point Calibri font ONLY, section headers, page numbers, title page, reference page, 1-inch margins (all), 5-page maximum, excluding the title page and reference page. You should have a total of 5 references (3 articles that you are synthesizing and 2 additional scholarly sources). Every reference listed must have a corresponding in-text citation. Each article should be cited in your paper. Do not include an abstract). Submit your assignment as a WORD document ONLY. No PDFs will be accepted for the final draft of this assignment itself, however, your three articles may be submitted in the form of a PDF. Should you submit your final Literature Review and Analysis as a PDF, it will not be graded. You will be required to resubmit it and appropriate point deductions will apply. Utica College Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses Paper Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperThis assignment must contain the academic honesty acknowledgment on the title page. A copy of this attestation statement is provided below. Submissions without the required attestation will not be graded. Please complete and copy to the title page the following:Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperAttestationI (enter your name) attest that this submission represents my own original work in compliance with college regulations. I further attest that it was personally authored by me and has not been taken in full or in part from the submission of any other student. In addition, I attest that the sources of all information obtained from outside sources have been truthfully and completely cited. I have read and understand the SPC Academic Honesty Policy and recognize violations of this policy may result in sanctions up to and including program dismissal.Submit your FINAL DRAFT and your 3 pieces of evidence to the dropbox. Label the assignment as: Utica College Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperLiterature Review: Last name_First name The goals for completing this assignment are to:demonstrate proficiency in critically analyzing research evidencedemonstrate the ability to synthesize the literature. Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses Paperdistinguish quality evidencediscuss the characteristics of research articlesintegrate multiple pieces of evidence into a literature review formatidentify gaps in areas of scientific investigationsLiterature reviews in published studies provide what is known, what is not known, and what the possible contribution is of a study. The review of the literature for a quantitative study is done to identify the research problem, understand previous research, and plan the study. During the interpretation of the findings, the researcher may review the literature again to determine if additional relevant studies have been published. Reviews of the literature in published studies can be critically appraised for current, quality sources; relevant content; and synthesis of relevant content (see the critical appraisal guidelines box in textbook Chapter 6). A checklist for reviewing the literature includes preparing, conducting the search, processing the information, and writing the review. A written review of literature should be grammatically correct with a logical flow and a reference list that is accurate and complete. Utica College Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperAssignment OverviewYou will write a limited literature review to identify studies published on your assigned topic. Your assigned topic is “appropriate coping strategies for burnout prevention”. In this assignment, you will review scientific literature in relation to your assigned topic. You are required to review and synthesize three research articles. The three articles are to be (1) peer-reviewed, (2) primary research, and (3) quantitative studies only. They must be articles that were published within the last 5 years. Throughout the semester, you have been searching for evidence that pertains to this topic. This is evidence that you may use to complete this assignment to support your literature review.Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperA literature review is used to direct the planning and execution of a study. The primary purpose of a literature review is to demonstrate why a study is necessary. As you compose your literature review, you must establish the necessity for a research study on the assigned topic. One of the key tasks is to establish where gaps in the current research lie. You must show what has been overlooked, understudied, or misjudged by previous studies in order to create space for new research within the assigned topic area of academic or scientific inquiry. When reading the papers, keep in mind that you do not need to understand every last detail in order to get the main messages and a clear overview of what was done and its implications and limitations. Utica College Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperStep 2: Writing your Literature ReviewYour final literature review and analysis paper will not be akin to a traditional literature review, which is usually presented as an often-lengthy text document. You are to provide your literature review in the format outlined within the rubric. You are required to electronically submit the three articles that you used to conduct the review, along with your final draft of the assignment. The articles may be submitted in PDF format. If you have already submitted the articles for a previous assignment, you are still required to submit them again with this final assignment. Your paper should be explicitly organized into sections that are listed on the Literature Review and Analysis rubric with clear section headings. Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperAdditional Resources to help you write your Literature ReviewView this link for guidance on how to write your literature review: for Writing a Literature ReviewSample of a Literature Review_1Sample of a Literature Review _2Disregard any outdated APA formatting within the examplesNOTE: You must be very careful not to simply use the abstracts of your articles or text in the articles itself for your summary. This exercise is meant for you to summarize things IN YOUR OWN WORDS! I am looking for YOUR summary of each source. Academic misconduct is a serious offense, thus TURNITIN ( less than 20% matching with no verbatim passages and no quotations) will be enabled. Please view the Academic Honesty Policy in your student handbook and/or the syllabus. You are required to submit full copies of your sources (research articles). There should be no third-party subscriptions or additional logins required when attempting to access your articles. Should this be the case, the article(s) will not be counted toward your grade and points will be deducted.Please see attachments below are 3 journal articles for review on strategies for burnout prevention and a sample literature review as a guide. Also see Literature review Rubic. Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses Paper      journal_article_10.pdfjournal_article_14.pdfjournal_article_1.pdfliterature_review_rubric___2___1_.docxliterature_review_ruReceived: 10 May 2017 Revised: 30 November 2017 Accepted: 7 January 2018 DOI: 10.1111/ppc.12262 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Occupational stress, coping strategies, and psychological-related outcomes of nurses working in psychiatric hospitals Abd Alhadi Hasan PhD1 1 Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Jeddah, KSA 2 Nursing School, University of Port Said, Egypt Sonia elsayed2 Hussein Tumah3 Abstract Aims: Psychiatric nurses experience a wide range of stressful events, evolving from the care of 3 Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Jeddah, violent, aggressive patients, recurrent relapse, and poor prognosis of mental disorders. The aim KSA of the study was to assess workplace stress, coping strategies, and levels of depression among Correspondence Abdalhadi Hasan, Ph.D, Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Alhamra district, Palestine street, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Email: psychiatric nurses. Methods: A descriptive correlation design was conducted on psychiatric nurses working in mental health settings Port-Said, Egypt. Data were collected from 70 nurses at a mental health hospital. Results: The results revealed that psychiatric nurses had moderate levels of work-related stress and depression, and exhibiting different coping strategies. Stress and depression are prevalent among psychiatric nurses. Conclusions: Implementing programs aimed at teaching them how to deal with stress at work and improving their coping strategies and problem-solving skills are recommended. KEYWORDS coping, depression, psychiatric nurses, work stress 1 INTRODUCTION to high levels of patient aggression, violence, unpredictability, and danger to themselves or others.8 Moreover, one of the basic roles of psy- Even though stress cannot be completely eliminated from daily life, chiatric nurses is to prevent harm to patients and others, which limits appropriate ways of coping with it can be practiced in order to reduce the actions that can be taken against patients.9,10 As a result, nurses it.1 Stress in the workplace is referred to as occupational stress and is face complex ethical dilemmas.11 recognized worldwide as a major problem facing healthcare workers.2 Lazarus and Folkman12 defined coping as “constantly changing Nursing has been identified as an occupation with high levels of stress, cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific internal/external notably in psychiatric settings as the mental health structure and ser- demands that are appraised as exceeding the resources of the person.” vice is very unstable, including high turnover rate3 and level of psy- Coping mechanisms are categorized as problem solving and emotion- chological wellbeing.4 Nayomi5 declares that stress involves an individ- ally focused coping. Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperThe former evolves techniques to minimize, rede- ual’s perception of the demands and the available capability to handle fine and/or solve external demands in order to reduce the effect of the the stressor, while Kim and Lee6 described occupational stress as any stressor. Conversely, the latter type is associated with modifying the force moving a psychological or physical factor beyond its range of abil- psychological reaction linked with stressors. Interestingly, Lin et al.1 ity, resulting in strain. These problems originate from certain demands found that effective utilization of coping mechanisms interferes with of the working environment in mental health settings and the problems the level of stress and depression experienced. Moreover, a study of in satisfying these demands. This finding was presented in a recent sys- hospital nurses in Australia and New Zealand found that the avoid- tematic review of 70 papers, which concluded that the negative impact ance type of coping strategy was significantly associated with physi- of occupational stress is observed in the mental health of professionals cal and mental health. This means that a stress level can be mediated if (burnout, job dissatisfaction, musculoskeletal disorders) and in organi- an individual administers the effective coping strategies to handle the zations as absenteeism and reduced efficiency and performance.7 stressors.13 In addition to the stressors reported by general nurses, working in Researchers view coping as ongoing strategies used in particu- closed environments is associated with perceived additional stress due larly stressful situations and focused on the multidimensionality of 514 © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2018;54:514–522. 515 3 HASAN ET AL . coping.12,14 It includes cognitive and behavioral efforts.15 In the litera- physical and mental health, and were more depressed.31,32 Studies ture, a variety of coping mechanisms are identified, such as confronta- focused on stress and depression in nurses found that the nurses’ tion, distancing, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, avoid- tension was positively correlated with their depression levels.33–35 ance, and religious coping.12,16,17 Researchers tend to dichotomize Reviewing the literature revealed that the majority of nurses in these coping strategies as active or passive, or emotion-focused ver- mental healthcare settings experience signs of psychological distur- sus problem-focused, especially when they examine the impact of cop- bance, and 40% are classified as experiencing distress.1,25,36 There is ing on psychological health.18 The coping strategy can determine one’s a paucity of studies examining these variables in Middle East coun- outcomes in facing and handling a stressful situation, influencing the tries. Little is known about psychiatric nurses in Egypt’s mental health level of general health.19 hospitals. In addition, the majority of the previous studies were con- Many common coping behaviors were shown to have a high corre- ducted with psychiatric nurses in outpatient settings, and a few specif- lation with depression and anxiety, that is, avoidance. This assumption ically investigated psychiatric nurses working in closed units. Port-Said has been supported by recent study findings that showed that nurses is the second largest city in Egypt and has one psychiatric hospital. who used an avoidance behavior coping mechanism experienced seri- The nurses experience a high level of working demands. The main pur- ous changes in their physio-psycho-social status.20 In the context of pose of this study was to determine the stress level, psychologically student nurses, it has been demonstrated that higher levels of psy- related outcomes, and the coping strategies used by psychiatric nurses chological distress are expressed among those who adopt avoidance in Egypt. The study also offers guidelines for psychiatric nurses to man- or secrecy coping mechanisms.21 This suggests that the use of effec- tive coping mechanisms helps them regain their equilibrium and mini- age their feelings of stress or depression, by identifying existing coping strategies and their relationship with depression and stress. mizes the negative influences of stress. In contrast, ineffective coping behavior intensifies the deleterious impact of stress. Therefore, coping behavior plays a vital part in the process of stress adjustmentUtica College Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses Paper.1 Drawing a conclusion from the literature, it is shown that an individual’s coping strategy in facing stress or challenging situations in life affect the person’s general health. 2 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Study design In the same context, Kravits et al.22 classified the effects of stress The study took the form of a cross-sectional study in Port-Said, Egypt into four categories: affective, cognitive, physical, and behavioral. with psychiatric nurses, between January and July 2016. Data were Those reflecting the affective responses may include anxiety, tension, collected by a two-part questionnaire sent to participants at facili- anger, depression and apathy experienced by the individual. Further ties identified by the research assistant; the first part collected demo- researches have proved that stress that is not well managed can cause graphic data, and the second aimed to investigate occupational stress, emotional and psychological problems, such as frustration,23 low self- coping mechanisms and depression levels. esteem,24 depression and anxiety.23 A high level of stress may have a negative effect on a person’s mental and physical health.25 The evidence suggests that depression and stress are interrelated. 2.2 Participants and procedure The overlapping symptoms of these psychological problems among Potential respondents were approached in the psychiatric hospital. psychiatric nurses can lead to a wide range of clinical and individual Eligible potential participants were given written information about problems that negatively impact the quality of care being provided the study, including an information sheet along with relevant consent to patients.26 Depression is an individual experience and a complex forms that they could take home prior to deciding whether to partic- phenomenon. People become detached from their internal and ipate in the study. These papers were supported by verbal explana- dominant.23,27 It has been tion about the study’s importance. Potential participants were asked demonstrated that workplace stress, emotional and physical exhaus- to return a signed consent form. They were told that they had the free- tion, feeling a lack of control, and ineffective coping are predisposing dom to withdraw from the study at any point without explanation. external worlds as the feeling of despair is factors to depression. Therefore, it is not unusual that psychiatric Initially, 87 people consented to participate in the research, of nurses suffer from depression episodes twice the rate of the general whom 17 later refused due to lack of interest and/or time commit- population. Generally, the risk factors of depression include being ments. Inclusion criteria were the ability to comprehend and respond female,7 low self-worth/self-esteem,24 maladaptive coping strategy,28 to the survey materials in English. Utica College Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperThe exclusion criteria were the events,29,30 stress.31 Previous study inability to understand either Arabic or English. Survey materials reported that stress in psychiatric departments was positively corre- describing the purpose and methods of the study were distributed to lated with psychiatric nurses’ depression levels and negatively related participants, with invitation letters, informed consent forms, and sur- to resourcefulness and it also concluded that the significant predictors vey questionnaires. All data were collected through the questionnaire. stressful life and workplace of depression level among psychiatric nurses was the level of stress experienced at work.20 In the same context, previous studies have found that individuals with high levels of occupational stress, who had less control, less support, or had to work at weekends, had worse 2.3 Measures The participants completed three assessments. 516 2 2.3.1 HASAN ET AL . Devilliers, Carson and Leary (DCL) stress scale 3 RESULTS This has 30 items, scoring on a 5-point Likert scale from the lowest value of 1 to the highest score of 5, indicating extremely stressed. The range of possible scores was 30 to 150. The Cronbach’s coefficient of this scale was 0.96.37 The items included (a) Having to deal with disturbed individuals, (b) conflicts not being settled, and (c) lack of positive feedback from supervisors within the organization and from unpredictable patients. 3.1 Characteristics of the sample About three quarters of the participants (57.1%) were 20 to 30 years old. More than half (62.9%) were females and married. Most respondents had graduated from the Technical Institute of Nursing “diploma level” (50.0%), while only 21.4% had attained bachelor degree in nursing. Almost two thirds of nurses (64.2%) were working in male units, and 21.4% in female units. In Middle-East culture, general and psychi- 2.3.2 Psych nurse methods of coping questionnaire atric hospitals separate male and female units due to religious issues. Some 57% of nurses worked less than 40 hours weekly. More than half This scale assesses the degree to which various coping strategies were utilized by psychiatric nurses. It consists of 35 items scored on a 5-point Likert scale: 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = occasionally, 4 = often, 5 = all the time. The range of possible scores was 35 to 175. The Cron- currently worked in morning shifts, and had experience of less than 3 years as reported in Table 1. The majority of the study sample had less than 3 years of experience. bach’s coefficient alpha was utilized to estimate the internal consistency and reliability of the overall scale and of each subscale. The reliability coefficient alpha was 0.90. In addition, the reliability coefficient alphas ranged from 0.77 to 0.82.38 3.2 Stressors Table 2 presents the descriptive statistics relating to the stress scale. It indicates that the highest stress scores were associated with deal- 2.3.3 Beck depression inventory (BDI) This scale was devised by Beck et al.39 and was used to assess the ing with physical and verbal abuse from patients or others, insufficient training to work with such patients, dealing with potential suicide patients, unpredictable behavior and demanding patients. severity of affective, behavioral, cognitive, and somatic symptoms of Poor communication received the highest mean score (mean = 2.83, depression. It includes 21 statements that cover items related to the SD = 0.39), followed by inadequate training (mean = 2.16, SD = 1.00). basic symptoms of depression, such as hopelessness and irritability, The stressor reported next most frequent was patients with suicidal feelings of guilt or feelings of being punished, as well as physical symp- thoughts (mean = 2.13, SD = 1.19), then bizarre and unpredictable toms such as fatigue, weight loss, and lack of interest in sex. Each patient behavior (mean = 2.13, SD = 1.19).Utica College Strategies For Burnout Prevention Prevention Among Nurses PaperFurther stressors included answer was scored on a Likert-type scale ranging from 0 to 3. Score workload (mean = 1.98, SD = 1.26). exceeding 29 was classified as high level of depression. The range of On the other hand, the lowest stress score was linked with the possible scores was 0 to 63. This scale has a good psychometric prop- inconsistency between planned job description and the nurse’s actual erty of 0.75 to 0.78.40 tasks, with a mean of 0.96 and SD 0.86. The next least stressful situation was found to be unhelpful nurses and disagreements within the team about patients’ treatment (mean = 1.13, SD 0.98), and the 2.4 Ethical considerations third was administrative factors such as lack of reward (mean = 1.15, The study was approved by the University of Port-Said, Scientific SD = 0.65). It is important to note that the mean of the most stressful Research Committee and the Scientific Research Ethics Committee of event was 2.3 and the mean of the least stressful activity was 1.09. the Ministry of Health, Egypt. Written consent was obtained from all participants. Table 3 shows that the results obtained from the preliminary analysis of stress levels showed that the majority of the respondents reported that they experienced a high level of stress (62.8%). However, only around 32.8% of the sample recognized working in the psychiatric 2.5 Data analysis setting as resulting in a moderate level of stress, and 18.5% experienced low levels of stress. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Statistical significance was set at p ˂ .05. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean value, and standard deviation were used to analyze socio-demographic characteristics. The 3.3 Coping strategies Pearson’s product–moment correlation test was used to examine the It can be seen from the data in Table 4 that the most common cop- relationship between the working stress level and coping mechanism ing strategy was self-assurance and the belief that his/her job would and depression levels as well as socio-demographic characteristics. be appreciated by others (mean ± SD = 3.67 ± 1.13). This was fol- Stepwise multiple linear regression was carried out to test variables lowed by having confidence in one’s own abilities to do a job well that had significant correlations with working stress to determine the (mean ± SD = 3.4 $1,173). Conversely, developing an individual plan relative importance of the variables in contributing to variations in the was the least used coping strategy, with a mean of 2.29 and standard stress level.41 deviation of 1.10. 517 3 HASAN ET AL. TA B L E 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the participants participant used a coping mechanism (r = –0.65 and p = .01). In addition, a positive significant correlation was detected between depres- Frequency (N = 70) % ≤20 10 14.2 20–30 40 57.1 Multiple regressions were performed in order to identify relation- 16 22.8 ships among demographic characteristics and the three independent 4 5.0 Socio-demographic characteristics reflects that when the level of work-related stress increased, the level Age 31–40 ≥40 sion and stress level (Pearson’s correlation = 0.710 and p = .01), which of depression also increased. variables (stress level, depression level, and coping strategies). The results are shown in Table 7. In model 1, working hours per week Marital status as a predictor variable explained 32% of the variance in stress level Married 40 57.1 Single 20 28.5 Divorced 3 4.2 p = 0.033]. In model 2, marital status and working unit, years of expe- Widow 7 10.0 rience were significant predictors of using effective coping strate- Male 26 37.1 [F(3, 32) = 8.722, p ˂ .05]. A total of 78.5% of variance in depression Female 44 62.9 level [F(3, 14) = 16.984] was explained by age, level of education, shift, Sex [F(2, 12) = 4.901, p = 0.011]. However, years of experience were not a statistically significant predictor of stress level [F(1, 21) = 1.167, gies, accounting for 67% of the variance in the depression level and working hours per week. Level of education School 20 College 35 28.5 50 University 15 21.4 4 Work unit DISCUSSION Male 45 64.2 Female 15 21.4 Addiction 10 14.4 Morning 45 64.2 work by psychiatric nurses is related to several factors such as deal- Afternoon 15 21.4 ing with disturbed and unpredictable patients. The results of this study Night 10 14.4 did show that coping mechanisms significantly influenced stress and ≤60 40 57.1 sion levels results from interaction between the stressors encountered 61–70 20 28.5 during caregiving tasks, and guided by their set of stress responses and ≥70 10 14.4 coping strategies.10 Shift tact with patients.9,42 Mental illness is a life-threatening condition and often results in social complications, which render nursing in inpatient psychiatry settings complex and challenging.7 Stress experienced at Working hours depression levels among the nurses. Reduction in stress and depres- The results of the present study regarding the DCL test revealed Years of experience ≤3 45 64.2 3—5 10 14.4 5.1—7 12 17.1 3 4.2 ≥7 Nurses are the major force in hospitals and are in the front line in con- that psychiatric nurses working in locked units experienced relatively high levels of stress. For instance, the mean DCL Stress Scale score for the entire sample was 124.72, SD 16.06 (range 0–150). This finding was consistent with several other research studies in the field of psychiatric nursing.43,44 Interestingly, empowering psychiatric nurses may have increased sel … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10 Order NowjQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘’, {action: ‘wpt_view_count’, id: ‘9054’});});jQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘’, {action: ‘mts_view_count’, id: ‘9054’});});

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