Qualitative Methodologies 350 words

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Qualitative Methodologies 350 wordsQualitative Methodologies 350 wordsCan you help me understand this Writing question? no plagiarize, spell check, and check your grammar. please use the five references belowQualitative methodologies involve collecting non-numerical data, usually through interviews or observation. There are many approaches to qualitative research and no fully agreed upon “list” of methodologies. The text (Malec and Newman, 2013) describes six approaches in Section 3.1. The Frank and Polkinghorne (2010) article also describes three main qualitative approaches. The best way to learn about a variety of qualitative research methods is to read reports or articles of research around a topic you are interested in. Qualitative Methodologies 350 wordsInstructions:For your initial post, choose two articles that use a qualitative research method to answer a research question on your topic of interest. Remember that qualitative research is exploratory in nature, and is used to go deeper into issues of interest and explore nuances related to the problem at hand. Common data collection methods used in qualitative research include group discussions, focus groups, in-depth interviews, and uninterrupted observations. Data analysis typically involves identifying themes or categories, or providing in- depth descriptions of the data. Use the Anderson (2006) and Lee (1992) articles to obtain a better understanding of what qualitative research includes.Briefly describe the particular qualitative research approach/methodology utilized in each of the two articles you selected (e.g. case study, ethnographic study, phenomenological study, etc.).Refer to the week’s readings (or recommended articles) to help you explain.Compare and contrast the two qualitative methods used:What is the same and what is different and why?Does either methods seem a good fit to explore your topic of interest?Why/why not?ReferencesAnderson, J. D. (2006). Qualitative and quantitative research. Available at http://web20kmg.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/82037432/QualitativeandQuantitativeEvaluationResearch.pdf (Links to an external site.)Cohen, D. J., & Crabtree, B. F. (2008). Evaluative criteria for qualitative research in health care: Controversies and recommendations. Annals of Family Medicine, 6(4), 331–339. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1370/afm.818Conway, A. (2014). Circuit court involved youth in Virginia: A descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative research study. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/978144627305014535709Kerr, Z. Y., Miller, K. R., Galos, D., Love, R., & Poole, C. (2013). Challenges, Coping Strategies, and Recommendations Related to the HIV Services Field in the HAART Era: A Systematic Literature Review of Qualitative Studies from the United States and Canada. AIDS Patient Care & STDs, 27(2), 85–95. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1089/…Malec, T. & Newman, M. (2013). Research methods: Building a knowledge base. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN-13: 9781621785743, ISBN-10: 1621785742. challenges__coping_strategies__and_recommendations.pdfevaluative_criteria_for_qualitative.pdfnew85743_03_c03_103_168_lowres__2_.pdfORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERSAIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs Volume 27, Number 2, 2013 ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/apc.2012.0356 Challenges, Coping Strategies, and Recommendations Related to the HIV Services Field in the HAART Era: A Systematic Literature Review of Qualitative Studies from the United States and Canada Zachary Y. Kerr, MPH, MA,1 Katye R. Miller, PhD, MCHES,2 Dylan Galos, MS,3 Randi Love, PhD,4 and Charles Poole, PhD1 Abstract Qualitative research methods have been utilized to study the nature of work in the HIV services field. Yet current literature lacks a Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) era compendium of qualitative research studying challenges and coping strategies in the field. This study systematically reviewed challenges and coping strategies that qualitative researchers observed in the HIV services field during the HAART era, and their recommendations to organizations. Four online databases were searched for peer-reviewed research that utilized qualitative methods, were published from January 1998 to February 2012, utilized samples of individuals in the HIV services field; occurred in the U.S. or Canada, and contained information related to challenges and/or coping strategies. Abstracts were identified (n = 846) and independently read and coded for inclusion by at least two of the four first authors. Identified articles (n = 26) were independently read by at least two of the four first authors who recorded the study methodology, participant demographics, challenges and coping strategies, and recommendations. A number of challenges affecting those in the HIV services field were noted, particularly interpersonal and organizational issues. Coping strategies were problem- and emotion-focused. Summarized research recommendations called for increased support, capacity-building, and structural changes. Future research on challenges and coping strategies must provide up-to-date information to the HIV services field while creating, implementing, and evaluating interventions to manage current challenges and reduce the risk of burnout. Knowledge pertaining to treating, managing, and curbing the effects of HIV has increased over time as the epidemic has progressed. The implementation of Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment (HAART) in the mid-1990s has increased the survival time of HIV-positive individuals.9 However, in decreasing the number of AIDS-related deaths and subsequently increasing the number of persons living with HIV, HAART and other medical advances have changed the types of challenges related to working in the HIV services field.10 The increased prevalence of HIV-positive individuals needing care, with a less than proportionate Introduction R esearch has extensively examined the challenges that HIV services staff encounter, finding a ‘‘dual threat’’ of stressors.1 Stressors related to social work (e.g., heavy workloads, poor pay, unpleasant working environments, and bureaucratic restrictions)2 coexist with stressors attributable to HIV/AIDS, such as HIV-related discrimination/stigma, sexuality, and fear of contagion.3–5 Qualitative Methodologies 350 wordsConsequently, HIV services staff endure a high level of burnout that may exceed that of their counterparts in other fields.4,6–8 1 Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 2 Student Wellness Center, Office of Student Life, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 3 Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 4 Division of Health Behavior/Health Promotion, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 85 86 increase in HIV services staff, has resulted in increased patient loads for HIV services staff. Current literature lacks a HAART era compendium of the challenges and coping strategies in the HIV services field. The most recent review was published almost 20 years ago. Qualitative Methodologies 350 words. 11 Despite the challenges associated with working in the HIV services field that arose with the advent of HAART, it is also important to consider the coping strategies that allow individuals working or volunteering in the HIV services field (henceforth collectively referred to as ‘‘helpers’’) focus on the benefits of their work. In addition, recent research has utilized qualitative research methods, such as interviews and focus groups, to obtain in-depth accounts of the nature of these challenges and coping strategies. When utilized to inform the design and implementation of preventive measures, these qualitative findings can help lead to studies examining the use of these preventive measures as contrasted with usual strategies. Furthermore, these qualitative findings have the potential to emphasize the positive, minimize the negative, and thus, minimize the risk of burnout. Examining the research pertaining to challenges and coping strategies in the HIV services field would provide more up-to-date information to AIDS-service organizations (ASOs), community-based organizations (CBOs), and hospitals. The purpose of this study is to review systematically the challenges and coping strategies that qualitative researchers have observed in the HIV services field during the HAART era. We defined ‘‘challenges’’ as any situations, contexts, or events that could potentially contribute to inducing stress and resulting in burnout. We defined ‘‘coping strategies’’ as any strategy or mechanism that could potentially inhibit stress and resulting burnout. Summarized research recommendations to minimize the effects of challenges and to maximize the potential usage of coping strategies will be discussed. In our review of qualitative studies from the U.S. and Canada, we examined the following research questions: Research Question 1: What challenges have HAART era qualitative research identified among helpers in the HIV services field? Research Question 2: What coping strategies have HAART era qualitative research identified among helpers in the HIV services field? Research Question 3: Based on research findings, what recommendations have HAART era qualitative research provided to ASOs, CBOs, and hospitals? Methods To assess the available literature base, the first author (ZK) searched for articles published in peer-reviewed journals and dissertations/theses published online from January 1, 1998 through February 29, 2012 in four online databases (MEDLINE, Social Work Abstracts, Web of Science–ISI, and PsycInfo). A search was also done on Google Scholar to ensure an exhaustive literature search. Although there is speculation as to when the HAART era began, we believe the start date of January 1, 1998 is a valid starting point for our data collection. Qualitative Methodologies 350 wordsKey events occurred prior to 1998, such as presentations at the 11th International Conference on AIDS in 199612 and publications in The New England Journal of Medicine in 1997. These presentations and publications provided evidence of the benefits of HAART13,14 and subsequent declines in AIDS KERR ET AL. and AIDS-related deaths.15 Our start date allows for sufficient time for their HAART-related findings to be integrated into the mainstream. Our date also allows for the research that had been conducted while HAART was first in use to have been published. Search terms covered: HIV/AIDS (‘‘HIV infection*’’ OR HIV OR AIDS); HIV services staff (doctor* OR ‘‘test provider*’’ OR staff OR physician* OR nurse* OR ‘‘social worker*’’ OR counselor* OR psychiatrist* OR ‘‘home health aide*’’ OR ‘‘home health work*’’ OR ‘‘health educator*’’ OR ‘‘prevention worker*’’ OR volunteer*); challenges/coping strategies (Psychology OR stress or challenge* OR coping OR experience* OR burnout OR ‘‘burn out’’ OR burden OR hardship); qualitative research (Qualitative OR focus group* OR interview*); and excluded locations not in the US or Canada (Africa OR Asia OR ‘‘South America’’ OR ‘‘Central America’’ OR ‘‘Mexico’’). A total of 1162 articles were found. Duplicates (n = 316) were removed, leaving 846 articles for inclusion criteria review. We selected articles that satisfied the all five of the following inclusion criteria: (1) utilized qualitative methods (e.g., interviews, focus groups); (2) published on or after January 1, 1998; (3) utilized samples of individuals working/volunteering in the HIV services field, directly with clients (e.g., doctors/physicians, nurses, psychiatrists, home health aides/ workers, health educators), or in supervisory roles; (4) occurred in the U.S. or Canada; and (5) contained information related to challenges and/or coping strategies. We limited research studies to those occurring in the U.S. and Canada because we believed that the work dynamics and resulting challenges and coping strategies were similar in these countries, but would differ from those in other regions. Each article was reviewed by at least two of the first four authors (ZK, DG, KM, RL). Authors examined each article title and abstract for the inclusion criteria. If information regarding the inclusion criteria could not be found, the authors sought additional information from within the body of the article. An article was included in the systematic literature review when both authors agreed that it fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion between the two authors. If there were differences of opinion that could not be resolved, additional authors were consulted. After applying the inclusion criteria, we retained 26 articles for systematic review. At least two authors reviewed and coded each article. The first coder recorded all relevant information about the article and the second coder verified the information. If there were differences of opinion that could not be resolved, a third coder was consulted. Our coding sought information regarding: – The methodology of the study, such as theoretical approach, sample type (random/nonrandom), and methods to increase validity and reliability of study findings – Participant demographics – Challenges and coping strategies – Recommendations for researchers and individuals in the HIV services field We utilized a team read-through during staff training to ensure that staff was acclimated to the coding process. We managed all data on an Excel spreadsheet, utilizing it to identify themes related to challenges, coping strategies, and recommendations. Qualitative Methodologies 350 wordsDiscussion among the authors continued HIV SERVICES FIELD CHALLENGES IN HAART ERA as article coding ensued. Themes were continuously refined until authors agreed upon a final collection of themes and subthemes. Counts for each challenge, coping mechanism, and recommendation theme and subtheme were tabulated. These themes were then verified by two external sources in the HIV services field for accuracy and relevance. Results Study populations and methodologies The 26 articles that we included originate from 24 research studies. Two articles16,17 originate from data collected by Sherman. Two articles18,19 originated from data collected by Myers et al. Table 1 displays the participant demographics of the 24 studies. A majority of studies sampled helpers with specific roles, such as nurses (17%, n = 4), HIV test counselors (17%, n = 4), volunteers (13%, n = 3), peer educators (8%, n = 2), directors (4%, n = 1), and doctors (4%, n = 1). The remaining 9 studies (38%) utilized samples of HIV services staff. The majority of studies originated from the U.S. (88%, n = 21), with San Francisco (15%, n = 3), and New York City (15%, n = 3) housing the largest proportions of study samples. Twelve studies (50%) reported response rates, with ranges of 35–100%. Twelve studies (50%) reported gender distributions, with the proportion of males ranging from 8% to 89%. Seven studies (29%) reported racial distributions, with the proportion of non-whites ranging from 8% to 100%. Few studies included information about participants’ age (13%, n = 3) and sexual orientation (8%, n = 2). Only one study (4%) utilized a random sample, with remaining studies utilizing convenience/purposive samples. Ten studies (42%) explicitly stated a theoretical approach, with five studies20–24 utilizing grounded theory,25 and a sixth study26 utilizing Framework Analysis.27 In addition, two studies28,29 used the methods set forth by Patton;30 Sherman16,17 used the methods set forth by Carini;31 and Du Mont, Macdonald, Myhr, and Loutfyl32 used the methods set forth by Graneheim and Lundman.33 Together with theoretical frameworks and methods, researchers utilized additional methods to increase validity and reliability (Table 2). Studies included: multiple research staff coding interview/focus group transcripts (42%, n = 10); team read-throughs (33%, n = 8); multiple read-throughs of transcripts (42%, n = 10); triangulation (33%, n = 8); refining of the thematic codebook as coding progressed (33%, n = 8); and data verification by an external source (29%, n = 7). Challenges We found the challenges to occur on a range of levels with peers, organizations, the community, and funders. As a result, we found it best to categorize challenges by the levels of the ecological model (i.e., personal, interpersonal, organizational, community, public policy) (Table 3). Personal. Nine studies (38%) identified challenges that occurred on the individual level. Six studies (25%) noted that helpers struggled with their emotions. Helpers’ anger (17%, n = 4) was directed towards those responsible for infecting their patients,17 and for some helpers, those who infected them.34 In some cases, anger originated from a personal belief 87 that clients were knowingly putting their partners at risk for HIV infection, resulting in personal biases against certain populations, such as African-American men who have sex with men and women.35 Helpers also expressed self-doubt and helplessness as to whether their work was effective in preventing the onset of new infections (13%, n = 3).21,36,37 HIV test counselors in particular felt that they needed to control their emotions in order to ensure they could provide support to their clients.21 Five studies (21%) noted job-related individual challenges, mostly due to the fear of contagion (13%, n = 3).16,29,38 The three remaining personal challenge subthemes were: uncertainty of the future of HIV services (8%, n = 2);32,36 enduring the sights and smells related to caring for sick HIV-positive patients (e.g., ‘‘copious diarrhea’’ or draining wounds) (4%, n = 1);16 and ethical concerns related to care (4%, n = 1).29 Interpersonal. Seventeen studies (71%) identified challenges that occurred on the interpersonal level. Qualitative Methodologies 350 wordsAll these studies (71%) discussed client relationships. Circumstances related to the client that hindered the staff/client relationship were most discussed (50%, n = 12), such as substance abuse,17,24,28,29,39 mental health issues,28,29 pregnancy,29 and sexual assault.21 As a result, clients had multiple needs aside from HIV infection. However, helpers believed that they lacked appropriate training regarding how to attend to HIVrelated issues in the context of these other issues.28 Helpers also struggled working with illiterate individuals and nonEnglish speaking clients.28,40,41 Clients also did not have much concern about HIV,21,41,42 believing that their risk for infection was not high.38,39 In a study with rural nurses,38 nurses noted that the prevalence of HIV may be low in rural areas, and a lack of concern may be due to concern for other infectious diseases and viruses. Despite their beliefs towards HIV/ AIDS, patient reactions to HIV test results were still highly emotional, causing helpers to struggle with giving HIV test results and responding accordingly (e.g., not becoming overly emotionally invested to where helper is unable to maintain professionalism).19,21,29 Helpers also reported clients as being uncooperative, impolite, rude, and even threatening;17,24,29 in some cases, clients demanded services without risk-reduction counseling.24,40 At the same time, the transient nature of clients made it difficult to maintain continual contact.39 As a result, helpers noted not being able to develop a relationship with patients,16,28,41 and suffered compassion burnout.36 Three studies (13%) noted that client relationships were further impeded by the clients’ inability to seek or obtain autonomy in their management of HIV.37,42,43 Helpers felt compelled to help and sympathize with their clients; however, helpers lacked the necessary time and resources (i.e., staff availability, coordination of care, programming materials) or believed helping would undermine clients’ autonomy. As a result, they struggled to know where to set limits or when to say ‘‘no.’’ Eight studies (33%) also discussed nonadherence issues related to treatment,28,29,36,37,43 minimizing high-risk behaviors,21,41 and seeking support.22 Helpers also noted that as HAART therapy was introduced, the doctor/patient relationship had changed (8%, n = 2). Doctors struggled to make the right decisions for drug combinations and treatments while managing resultant side effects.36 However, some doctors believed that their patients provided the best insight into effective treatment.36,43 88 26 CBO staff members (US) 25 ASO volunteers (South Carolina, US) 18 ASO volunteers (Ontario, Canada) 132 Sexual Assault/Domestic Violence Treatment Center health care providers (Ontario, Canada) 20 HIV specialists (San Francisco, US) 10 patient-teachers (Boston, US) ASO volunteers (Appalachia area, US) 31 HIV-prevention counselors and 9 supervisors (Texas, US) 499 members of Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (US) 16 medical center physicians (New York City, US) 42 HIV-test counselors (US) 61 PIs, co-PIs, project directors, and interventionists (US) 25 ASO care providers (US) 19 HIV/AIDS clinic counselors (US) 9 HIV + Peer Educators (Bronx, NY) 76 rural nurses (Virginia, US) 24 HIV-test providers (Canada) 18 public health administrators/medical directors/ doctors (San Francisco, US) 12 minority CBO founders/directors (US) 16 HIV-staff members (Los Angeles county, US) 64 CBO staff working with jail/prison facilities (USA) 21 African American CBO staff (California, USA) 37 program directors, case managers, and contract managers (San Francisco, US) 12 medical center nurses from an AIDS-dedicated unit (NYC, US) Sample (location) a 26 articles comprise the 24 studies. There are two studies that each produced two articles. ASO, AIDS service organization; CBO, community-based organization; PI, principal investigator.Qualitative Methodologies 350 wordsSherman16,17 Parrish23 Roberts et al.24 Robillard et al.28 Saleh et al.35 Sebesta et al.42 Gerbert et al.36 Hatem et al.34 Held & Brann37 Hitt et al.40 Kalichman et al.29 Karasz et al.43 Kerr et al.21 Koester et al.26 Konseko & Rintamaki48 Kukafka et al.41 Marino22 Mullins38 Myers et al.18,19 Myers et al.45 Chillag et al.39 Christensen et al.44 Crook et al.20 Du Mont et al.32 Study No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No Random sample? Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Theoretical approach? Table 1. Demographics of Included Studies (n = 24)a 80% 100% 78% 35% 100% 8% 41% 62% 42% 44% 32% 16% 75% 38% 35% 98% 50% 60% 89% % Male 65% 87% 35% 100% 71% Response rate 50% 62% 100% 89% 8% 48% 10% % Non-white 46.0 42.1 22.3 Mean Age (years) 0% 48% % LGBT HIV SERVICES FIELD CHALLENGES IN HAART ERA 89 Table 2. Methods to Improve Validity and Reliability in Included Studies (n = 24)a Use of theory/ methods framework Study 39 Chillag et al. Christensen et al.44 Crook et al.20 Du Mont et al.32 Gerbert et al.36 Hatem et al.34 Held & Brann37 Hitt et al.40 Kalichman et al.29 Karasz et al.43 Kerr et …Purchase answer to see full attachmentStudent has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service. 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