Discussion: Theory or Model Based Approach Analysis

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Discussion: Theory or Model Based Approach AnalysisORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Theory or Model Based Approach AnalysisThe article may have a theory or model to include in your analysis. If there is NO theory listed, your second option is to write in your conclusion about a Health Education model or theory. Discuss how this theory/model can be used in the context of the article. Discussion: Theory or Model Based Approach Analysis journal_article.instructions.docxhelments.journal.pdfInstructions for Journal Article Analysis:Find a research article in a peer-reviewed Journal that is relevant to this class. This means that the research has a consumer health focus.The article may have a theory or model to include in your analysis.  If there is NO theory listed, your second option is to write in your conclusion about a Health Education model or theory. Discuss how this theory/model can be used in the context of the article. Discussion: Theory or Model Based Approach AnalysisUSE A STUDY THAT HAS PARTICIPANTS AND DATA COLLECTION.Rules for papersWrite in 3rd person neutral.Topic sentences will help the flow of the topics needed.Introductory paragraph leads into what the article was about.Explain the purpose of the article.Why is this a consumer issue.Use perfect grammar.Check for spelling.Use appropriate punctuation.Concluding paragraph is a short summary.APA in-text citation is necessary especially if there are quotes,  therefore a reference page will be needed.You may use your text book if needed. The following are the areas graded in the rubricIntroduction/conclusionMethodology and overview of the research including outcomesHealth education theory included (either included in the article or in your conclusion)Why is this important as consumers?Check your grammar.In text and references APA styleFormat consistent with syllabus instruction.Instructions for Journal Article Analysis: Find a research article in a peer-reviewed Journal that is relevant to this class. This means that the research has a consumer health focus. The article may have a theory or model to include in your analysis. If there is NO theory listed, your second option is to write in your conclusion about a Health Education model or theory. Discuss how this theory/model can be used in the context of the article. USE A STUDY THAT HAS PARTICIPANTS AND DATA COLLECTION. Rules for papers • • • • • • • • • • • Write in 3rd person neutral. Topic sentences will help the flow of the topics needed. Introductory paragraph leads into what the article was about. Explain the purpose of the article. Why is this a consumer issue. Use perfect grammar. Check for spelling. Use appropriate punctuation. Concluding paragraph is a short summary. APA in-text citation is necessary especially if there are quotes, therefore a reference page will be needed. You may use your text book if needed. The following are the areas graded in the rubric 1. Introduction/conclusion 2. Methodology and overview of the research including outcomes 3. Health education theory included (either included in the article or in your conclusion) 4. Why is this important as consumers? 5. Check your grammar. 6. In text and references APA style 7. Format consistent with syllabus instruction. Journal of American College Health ISSN: 0744-8481 (Print) 1940-3208 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vach20 The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use Among Undergraduates Thomas P. Ross PhD , Lisa Thomson Ross PhD , Annalise Rahman BS & Shayla Cataldo BS To cite this article: Thomas P. Ross PhD , Lisa Thomson Ross PhD , Annalise Rahman BS & Shayla Cataldo BS (2010) The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use Among Undergraduates, Journal of American College Health, 59:1, 29-36, DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2010.483702 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2010.483702 Published online: 08 Aug 2010. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 1572 View related articles Citing articles: 28 View citing articles Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=vach20 JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH, VOL. 59, NO. 1 The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use Among Undergraduates Thomas P. Ross, PhD; Lisa Thomson Ross, PhD; Annalise Rahman, BS; Shayla Cataldo, BS Abstract. Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior. Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328–335) to predict reported helmet use. Participants: Students (N = 337) from a mid-sized university in the southeast completed a survey between November 2006 and November 2007. Methods: Participants completed a comprehensive survey on attitudes and behaviors relevant to bicycle helmet use. Results: The resulting Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale contains 57 items and represents 10 reliable subscales that reflect the HBM. Discussion: Theory or Model Based Approach Analysis Only 12% of students were self-reported helmet users. Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale scores captured 52% of the variance associated with helmet use; each subscale differentiated wearers from nonwearers. Men reported more media influences than did women. Conclusions: The utility of the HBM to predicted bicycle helmet use was supported. Implications for promoting cycling safety are discussed. Transportation Safety Administration reported that 44,000 bicyclists were injured in 2006; 773 of these injuries resulted in death, accounting for 2% of all traffic fatalities that year.3 Head trauma is a particular problem with bicycling injuries; in 2004, for example, 10,769 bicyclists were hospitalized for head injuries.4 McCoy suggested that accident and fatality statistics warrant better psychosocial evaluation of helmet use and nonuse in adult riders.5 Bicycle helmet use can effectively reduce injury in the event of an accident.6–8 In one study of undergraduates, for example, no student wearing a helmet at the time of his/her bicycling accident required hospitalization for a head injury.6 Conversely, in a study of patients warranting emergency room care for a serious bicycle-related head injury, only 4% of patients had been wearing helmets.7 Helmets significantly decrease severe mid-face, nose, and eye lacerations or fractures as well as brain injuries.8 Despite the protection that helmets provide, most bicyclists do not wear one. The rates of helmet use among college students are consistently below 25%.6,9–12 This lack of helmet use is of great concern for health educators and practitioners. Understanding the factors that predict helmet use is essential for developing effective helmet promotion programs to decrease cycling injuries. Researchers have explored potential helmet use barriers to better understand low usage rates. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) note several barriers to helmet use, including cost, comfort, lack of knowledge regarding helmet efficacy, and negative peer pressure.13 Others note environmental barriers, including availability and cost.14 Among college students in particular, barriers to helmet use include the physical discomfort of helmet wearing, cost, biking short distances, inconvenience, disruption of physical appearance, concerns about ridicule, and the vision impairment associated with helmet wearing.6,11,12 In contrast, positive Keywords: bicycle helmet, bicycling, health belief model, safety R iding a bicycle is a popular form of recreation, an environmentally conscious form of transportation, and a low-cost means of exercise. Approximately 30% of Americans own a bicycle.1 Approximately half of adult cyclists bicycle for functional reasons (eg, commuting, running errands), as opposed to health (25%) or recreational purposes (29%).2 Thus, cycling is a common aspect of modern culture, although it can be dangerous. Discussion: Theory or Model Based Approach Analysis The National Highway Dr Thomas P. Ross is a professor of psychology and Dr Lisa Thomson Ross is an associate professor of psychology at the College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina. Ms Rahman and Ms Cataldo are graduates of the College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina. Copyright © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 29 Ross et al correlates of undergraduates’ helmet use include past personal injury or hospitalization due to a bicycling accident, long distance bike travels, helmet ownership, being Caucasian, a history of a cycling-related injury to a close friend, perceived vulnerability to injury, perceived ability of helmets to prevent head injury, and having peers who routinely wear bicycle helmets.6,11 There was a 24% decline in cycling deaths in the United States during 1994–2001 when several new helmet use laws were introduced15; however, helmet laws do not exist in many states and can be difficult to enforce. Therefore, helmetwearing practices likely reflect a person’s internal beliefs more so than external forces, such as laws. Rosenstock’s Heath Belief Model (HBM) provides a useful framework for conceptualizing personal attitudes that predict preventative health behaviors.16 The model’s components are organized into those that provide the force or “readiness to act,” those that provide a “preferred path of action,” and those that serve as “cues to action.” An individual’s readiness to act is a function of his/her perceptions of his/her own vulnerability to the health threat (eg, the chances of being injured while bicycling) and the severity of consequences (eg, the extent to which a bicycle-related injury would impair one’s physical, social, and occupational functioning). The preferred path of action includes the perceived benefits and barriers factors, and beliefs about benefits gained must outweigh the cost or barriers to action. Finally, cues to action (eg, media influences, knowing someone affected by the health threat) may trigger the behavior in question. An individual primed for action may not engage in the healthful behavior without an adequate cue to incite the desired behavior.16 The HBM has been applied to a wide range of health behaviors (eg, seatbelt use, getting a vaccine) and several studies support the major premises of the model.17,18 However, there are controversies and limitations that arise when social cognition models (such as the HBM) are used to predict health behaviors.19–21 Most notably, the HBM lacks clear operational definitions for the proposed constructs, and does not specify how variables should be combined (ie, in an additive or multiplicative fashion) to predict behavior.20,22 Accordingly, the number and type of constructs included across studies varies greatly, which prohibits cross-study comparisons. Few studies have used the HBM to predict bicycle helmet use. A large study of Finnish adolescent cyclists (N = 424) included 11 HBM items and found only 4 significantly correlated with behavioral intention: barriers, cues to action, perceived severity of a cycling accident, and health motivation.23 A smaller study among British adolescent schoolboys (N = 105) investigated which HBM subscales best predicted bicycle helmet use four weeks later.24 This survey included 25 items total that reflected perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, benefits and barriers of helmet use, and cues to action. Discussion: Theory or Model Based Approach Analysis The cues to action item was the strongest predictor, as 74% of respondents who had experienced a cycling accident wore helmets, whereas only 32% of those who had not had a personal accident utilized helmets.24 Other signif30 icant predictors were perceived barriers, perceived benefits, and perceived susceptibility. The complete model accounted for 53% of the helmet use variance, highlighting the ability of the HBM to predict helmet usage.24 One final study in California administered a telephone survey to parent-child pairs (N = 497); parents who recalled exposure to different types of cues to action (eg, media announcements) reported more perceived threat, which was associated with helmet use among their children.25 Prior studies examining college students’ helmet use have methodological limitations. The few studies assess usage rates and attitudes, but are not guided by a model such as the HBM. Furthermore, prior studies guided by the HBM typically include few items for each subscale (rather than representing the model adequately), and provide limited reliability and factor structure data.23–25 To date, no studies have applied the HBM to college students’ bicycle helmet use in the United States. Therefore, new research is necessary to target predictors of bicycle helmet attitudes and use among college students in a theory-driven manner. Given the limitations of prior research, the present study sought to create a psychometrically sound scale with meaningful and reliable subscales to measure bicycle helmet use attitudes and motives operationalized by the HBM. In addition, this study examined reported rates of helmet use. As predicted by the Health Belief Model, the hypotheses were as follows: 1. that bicycle helmet wearers would report significantly more Perceived Vulnerability, Benefits, and Cues to Action than helmet nonwearers; 2. that bicycle helmet wearers would report significantly higher regard for Severity of Consequences than nonwearers; and 3. that bicycle helmet wearers would report significantly fewer Barriers than nonwearers. METHODS Students (N = 337) at a medium-sized public college in the Southeast participated. The majority of the participants were female (78%). Most (87%) of the participants identified themselves as Caucasian, 6% African American, 3% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 4% reported other ethnic identities. Most participants (94%) were between the ages 18 and 21 (mean age 19.5 years). Participants received either research credit (if they were in an Introductory Psychology class) or extra credit (if they were in an upper-level psychology class) for their participation. Thus, this was a self-selected convenience sample. During the informed-consent procedure, students were assured that their participation in the study was confidential. Once all surveys were completed, participants were read a debriefing statement and questions were answered. The protocol used in this study was approved by the college’s Institutional Review Board. Participants responded to questions about demographic information, bicycle riding, attitudes toward helmet laws, JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH Helmet Attitude and Use and wearing a bicycle helmet. Respondents were asked, “If I had to classify myself, I would say. . .,” and then they chose one of the following: “I’m not a helmet wearer and I do not intend to use one”; “I’m not a helmet wearer, but I intend to obtain and use a helmet”; “I am a helmet wearer, but just recently (ie, less than 1 year ago) started wearing one”; or “I am a helmet wearer, and I have worn one for a long time (ie, more than 1 year).” Discussion: Theory or Model Based Approach Analysisb Based on a careful review of the literature, the Principal Investigators selected and generated 127 potential HBM items for the survey. As recommended by DeVellis,26 the initial item pool was much larger than the number of items intended for the final scale. When selecting relevant items from the existing literature and generating new ones, the Principle Investigators made judgments (ie, rationally derived decisions) based on our (and other researchers’) interpretation of the HBM. Items were inspected for clarity and grammar. Following this process, factor analysis was used to select a subset of items that best measured the domains of interest for final inclusion in the scale. For these questions, responses were indicated on a 6-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 = “Strongly Disagree” to 6 = “Strongly Agree.” Therefore, higher values indicate greater agreement with the statement expressed in each item. Sample items include “My parents made me wear a helmet as a child” and “Wearing a helmet is too hot.” At the end of the survey, open-ended questions were employed to assess students’ top reasons for not wearing a helmet and the circumstance under which they are most likely to wear one. Five students completed the survey and provided feedback regarding item clarity, flow, and the length of time required to complete it prior to group administration. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 14.0 for Windows. RESULTS Bicycle Helmet Use and Attitudes Just over half of the sample (53%) stated they ride a few times per year, as opposed to monthly (15%), a few times per month (14%), once or twice per week (5%), or more often (12%). One third of the students agreed (slightly, moderately, or strongly) that they bike primarily for transportation reasons, whereas 75% agreed to some extent that they bike for recreational reasons. Over half (60%) knew someone who has been in an accident, and 6% personally knew someone who was killed in a bicycle accident. A majority of the students (75%) stated that they themselves have been injured while riding, whereas fewer (12%) reported that their injury required medical attention. Less than half of the students (46%) reported owning a bicycle helmet. Only 12% were self-reported helmet users; the majority (72%) reported not wearing a helmet and having no intention to do so in the future. When asked the top reason for not wearing a helmet, the most common reasons were that they don’t ride often enough (24%), they don’t own one (12%), they just don’t want to (8%), or they are too uncomVOL 59, JULY/AUGUST 2010 fortable (7%). When asked under what circumstances they are more likely to wear a helmet, the top reasons were riding in urban or high traffic areas (21%), riding in dangerous or mountain biking terrain (17%), riding long distances (13%), riding in organized races (9%), and if it was a law (9%). Seventy-eight percent of students agreed (slightly, moderately, or strongly) that mandatory helmet laws would reduce injuries and fatalities, and a majority (77%) indicated they would be more likely to wear a helmet if required by law. However, students’ support of mandatory helmet laws depended on the age of those subject to such laws. Combining across the 3 levels of agreement, most students (89%) favored a mandatory law for children 12 and under, fewer (56%) favored such a law for individuals 16 and under, and just over one third (35%) favored such a law for all individuals regardless of age. Scale Development Surveys from students for whom data were complete on the 127 items were included in the data set for scale development. Principal components analysis with Verimax rotations was employed to create factors for each of the 5 proposed HBM dimensions, and Cronbach’s alpha values were used to verify the internal consistency. Whenever possible, items were deleted to shorten the subscales if the factor structure and reasonable reliability (α ≥ .80) could be maintained. For each factor analysis, all final items had a high primary loading (typically .50 or higher) without a secondary loading (.29 or less). Discussion: Theory or Model Based Approach AnalysisThe final 57-item Bicycle Helmet Attitude Scale (BHAS), including all subscales, items, factor loadings, alphas, means, and standard deviations is presented in Table 1. Perceived Vulnerability items yielded 2 subscales. The first perceived vulnerability subscale was named Perceived Exemption from Harm. Higher scores on these 6 items indicate more agreement with reasons for not needing to wear a helmet. The second perceived vulnerability subscale, also 6 items, was named Perceived Danger of Cycling. Higher scores reflect stronger agreement that riding a bicycle can be dangerous. Perceived Severity of Harm consisted of 4 items and was deemed one factor. Higher scores reflect more awareness regarding the potential seriousness of consequences associated with a bicycling injury. Perceived Benefits items yielded 2 subscales. The first was titled Emotional Benefits. Higher scores on these 7 items reflect more agreement about how helmet use can make one feel better. On the second perceived benefit subscale, named Safety Benefits (5 items), higher scores reflect stronger agreement that helmets can protect people from harm in an accident. Perceived Barriers yielded 2 subscales. The first 7-item subscale was titled Cost Barriers. Higher scores suggest economic reasons for not wearing a helmet. The second perceived barrier subscale, also 7 items, was named Personal 31 Ross et al TABLE 1. Health Belief Model Subscales: Bicycle Helmet Attitude Items and Factor Loadings F1 Personal Vulnerability Perceived Exemption From Harm (α = .79, M = 3.2, SD = 1.0) 1. I do not go fast enough to need head protection in a crash. 2. I feel that helmets are unnecessary for very short rides. 3. Being an adult who has been riding for years, I can easily avoid an accident when riding. 4. Bicycle helmets are less important for those who ride their bikes infrequently. 5. Bicycle helmets are more important for those who ride their bikes long distances. 6. Since I’m not racing or doing any bike stunts, I don’t really need a helmet. Perceived Danger of Cycling (α = .80, M = 4.3, SD = .84) 1. When I’m bicycling, I am at risk of being injured by other bicyclists. 2. When I’m bicycling, I am at risk of being injured by motor vehicles. 3. If I had an accident while riding to school or work and hit my head, I would be likely to suffer brain damage. 4. Bicycling is dangerous on slippery/wet roads. 5. Th … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10 Order NowjQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘https://nursingpaperessays.com/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php’, {action: ‘wpt_view_count’, id: ‘19428’});});jQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘https://nursingpaperessays.com/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php’, {action: ‘mts_view_count’, id: ‘19428’});});

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