Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated Bibliography

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Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON  Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyI’m studying for my Nursing class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study? 4 annotated bibliography in the 7th edition apa format Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographySubmit an annotated bibliography supporting your project with at least 4 professional journal articles less than five years old. 7th edition APA format with one paragraph per article detailing how the article supports your project. Include copies of articles with submission.= 10 points 3 articles on medication errors or dispening proquestdocuments_2020_09_23.pdfreducing_medication_errors_in_.pdfusp__amp_lt_800_amp_gt_.pdfnurses___perceptions_of_automat.pdfFactors Affecting the Impact of Barcode Medication Administration Technology in Reducing Medication Administration Errors by Nurses Baiden, Deborah . Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics ; Vancouver Vol. 13, Iss. 1, (Winter 2018). ProQuest document link ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) […]the error of wrong drug dosage administration was most positively impacted by the use of the BCMA technology. […]a simple technological factor such as a wireless connection can influence the capability of BCMA to decrease medication administration errors. According to the author, the time frame within which this research was conducted may have affected findings as data collection ended five months after BCMA implementation (Gooder, 2011). […]there is a gap in the application of theory to nursing research to support BCMA implementation and impact which needs to be addressed. […]the error of wrong drug dosage administration was most positively impacted by the use of the BCMA technology. […]a simple technological factor such as a wireless connection can influence the capability of BCMA to decrease medication administration errors. According to the author, the time frame within which this research was conducted may have affected findings as data collection ended five months after BCMA implementation (Gooder, 2011). […]there is a gap in the application of theory to nursing research to support BCMA implementation and impact which needs to be addressed. FULL TEXT Findings Nurse contentment Fowler, Sohler and Zarillo (2009) reported that within six months of the introduction of BCMA technology in a trauma centre, the nurses’ contentment was relatively high compared to the use of non-BCMA administration. Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyThis is because the nurses perceived that the BCMA technology made it easier to prevent medication errors thus promoted patient safety. However, there was concern from nurses that only four of the five rights of medication administration were met by the BCMA technology, neglecting the right time of administration. Additionally, Gooder (2011) disclosed that nurses sampled in an acute care setting expressed discontent after the BCMA technology was introduced into their facility. The key factor attributed to this was the nurses’ negative attitudes towards the use of the technology, which hindered its potential to reduce medication errors and simplify work processes. Hospital or nursing unit related factors Incidences of medication administration errors were reduced by 54% when BCMA technology was implemented in two cardiac telemetry units and a medical-surgical unit (Paoletti et al., 2007). Hassink, Duisenberg-van Essenberg, Roukema and van den Bemt (2013) also observed a 50% drop in medication administration errors post-BCMA in a surgical unit. Correspondingly, DeYoung, Vanderkooi and Barletta (2009) pointed out there was a 56% decrease in medication errors classified as wrong time administration, with the use of BCMA in an adult medical intensive care unit. Further, BCMA averted almost 67% of medication administration errors in a critical access hospital (Cochran, Barrett &Horn, 2016). Factors recognized by DeYoung, Vanderkooi and Barletta (2009) as facilitators to the reduction in medication administration errors with the use of BCMA technology included “routine quality assurance” (p.1114) and the use of other health information technologies in addition to the BCMA technology. On PDF GENERATED BY PROQUEST.Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyCOM Page 1 of 16 that account, organizational and nursing unit related factors could impact the effectiveness of the BCMA technology in lowering medication errors in clinical practice. However, differences exist in the effect of BCMA technology on medication administration errors between care units (Helmons, Wargel &Daniels, 2009; Seibert, Maddox, Flynn &Williams, 2014). Medication error rates were 58% lower on medical-surgical units compared to intensive care units if observations of wrong time medication administration were excluded. In other words, the use of BCMA technology did not affect wrong time medication administration in both nursing units. The variations among care units and hospitals might be attributed to differences in bed capacity, patient condition, access to pharmacy staff, and availability of BCMA technology at the patient bedside (Cochran, Barrett &Horn, 2016; Cochran &Haynatzki, 2013; Seibert et al, 2014). This means that nursing units or hospitals with smaller bed capacities could record a comparatively higher impact of the BCMA technology. In the same vein, care facilities with patients suffering from diseases requiring complex medications or patients with shorter lengths of stay could record a relatively lower impact of BCMA. This is consistent with findings from Helmons et al. (2009) which showed that the dissimilarity between the classifications of medications used in the intensive care units and the medical-surgical units could account for differences in the impact of the BCMA technology on medication errors in these care units.Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyFurthermore, the types of medication error significantly reduced by the BCMA technology varied across health care facilities. Notably, emergency room nurses were observed to administer the correct drug dosage with efficacy using BCMA (Bonkowski et al., 2013). Hence, the error of wrong drug dosage administration was most positively impacted by the use of the BCMA technology. Bonkowski et al. (2013) disclosed that BCMA was effective in preventing errors associated with medication administration by almost 81% among nurses in the emergency unit. Also, Helmons et al. (2009) uncovered that BCMA technology improved the right documentation rates among nurses in intensive care units compared to medical-surgical units. Poon et al. (2010) conducted a study in a teaching hospital and identified a reduction in the rates of giving incorrect medication by about 57%, inaccurate dosage by almost 42% and omitting or wrongly charting medication given by 80.3%, following the introduction of BCMA technology. Notwithstanding, errors in medication administration were markedly lowered in surgical and intensive care units compared to medical units. In spite of this, the BCMA technology was generally effective in the hospital. The authors surmised that hospital- related factors such as effective consultation between staff nurses and clinical administrators, consensus to use the technology, thorough education on how to use the technology, and the availability of resources enhanced smooth adoption and usage of BCMA technology (Poon et al., 2010). Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyIt is important to note that in a few studies, findings revealed either no change in the rates of medication errors, an increase in rates, or a decrease that is clinically considered to be inconsequential to patient safety (Bowers et al., 2015; FitzHenry et al., 2011; Sakowski, Newman &Dozier, 2008). Technological factors A neonatal intensive care unit documented a 47% reduction in unfavourable outcomes from medication errors following the use of BCMA technology (Morriss et al., 2009). However, Morriss et al. (2009) disclosed that wrong time administration was increased following the use of the technology due to alerts received from the system. Comparatively, FitzHenry et al. (2011) emphasized that no more than 99 out of the 18,393 warfarin doses administered to patients in a US teaching hospital, were medication errors of clinical importance that threatened patient safety when BCMA technology was used. This indicates a reduction in medication errors with the use of the BCMA technology. However, incidences of erroneous alerts of medication errors are recorded by the technology, which are mostly associated with wrong time medication errors (FitzHenry et al., 2011). This made nurses concentrate their time and effort to resolve these erroneous alerts and place more emphasis on administering medications at the right time at the expense of other nursing procedures. According to FitzHenry et al. (2011), the high incidences of erroneous alerts contributed to a “risk for alert fatigue” (p. 440) which could further hinder patient safety and care. Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyOn the other hand, Miller, Fortier and Garrison (2011) showed that alert signals from the BCMA technology helped PDF GENERATED BY PROQUEST.COM Page 2 of 16 prevent medication errors by drawing the attention of nurses to potential errors with high-risk medications. Nevertheless, studies uncovered cases in which nurses use the BCMA technology incorrectly by either missing steps in the procedure, carrying out unapproved steps or carrying out steps in an incorrect sequence(Koppel, Wetterneck, Telles &Karsh, 2008; Miller et al, 2011). BCMA was perceived by nurses to reduce time spent in carrying out medication related procedures since it made it easier to validate the five rights of medication administration thereby expediting nursing workflow (Dwibedi et al., 2011; Huang &Lee, 2011; Tsai, Sun &Taur, 2010). Additionally, nurses observed that BCMA enhanced patient wellbeing, improved quality of care and augmented nursing care (Tsai et al, 2010). It is important to note that nurses reported that unstable wireless connections were a major barrier in ensuring efficient running of the technology (Huang &Lee, 2011; Tsai et al, 2010; Yen et al., 2015). Hence, a simple technological factor such as a wireless connection can influence the capability of BCMA to decrease medication administration errors. Findings also revealed that nurses tend to develop tactics to overcome challenges faced while using BCMA technology (Bowers et al., 2015; Hardmeier, Tsourounis, Moore, Abbott &Guglielmo, 2014; Holden et al., 2013; Koppel et al, 2008; Miller et al, 2011). Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyThese challenges included omitted or illegible barcodes, power unpredictability, scanning defects, and interrupted wireless connection (Huang &Lee, 2011; Koppel et al, 2008; Snyder, Carter, Jenkins &Fantz, 2010; Tsai et al, 2010; Yen et al., 2015). Given these circumstances, patient safety could possibly be threatened instead of being protected. For instance, Snyder et al. (2010) uncovered cases of incorrect patient validation, where defects in barcodes wrongly identified patients which could be life-threatening. Discussion Barcode medication administration technology reduces medication administration errors by 50 to 70 per cent (Cochran et al., 2016; DeYoung et al., 2009; Hassink et al., 2013; Helmons et al., 2009; Paoletti et al., 2007). There are some discrepancies as Bonkowski et al. (2013) uncovered that as high as 81% of medication administration errors were prevented post-BCMA. Additionally, few studies noted that BCMA may actually increase error rates, or have no significant impact on error rates (Bowers et al., 2015; FitzHenry et al., 2011; Sakowski et al., 2008). There are several factors contributing to this, which warrant discussion. The reviewed studies employed various research methods with quite a number using direct observation. In a study to assess how observation influences the rate of medication errors in NICU, Campino, Lopez-Herrera, Lopez-deHeredia, and Valls-i-Soler (2008) indicated that errors are meaningfully reduced when medication procedures are observed. This could be linked to the Hawthorne effect in which participants who know that they are being observed act differently than they normally would (Fernald et al., 2012). Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyTo improve reliability and validity of findings, observers were trained for a minimum of two hours in all the observational studies reviewed in this paper. Also, some studies employed a technique where the observer was new to the medication administration procedure, but was familiar with patient safety concepts. Thus, pharmacy and nursing students were trained and recruited as observers using this technique. The limitation of this technique is that, certain errors may be missed because of inexperience. However, Cheragi et al., (2013) contended that clinical experience has no bearing on medication administration errors. According to Fernald et al. (2012), it is essential to eliminate bias from participants to improve research quality. Meanwhile, none of the observational studies discussed how the Hawthorne effect on participants was dealt with. This could affect findings as nurses who are aware that they are being observed may use BCMA technology correctly as much as possible, to eliminate errors. However, had this been the case, results would have recorded almost 100% reduction in medication errors. Anglemyer, Horvath and Bero (2014) on the contrary, stated that observation does not significantly affect the findings in all observational studies. This shows that although observation could affect research findings, it does not apply to every case. Also, Kelly et al. (2016) deduced that compared to surveys and interviews, observation is the preferred method to unveil threats to patient safety associated with the use of BCMA. Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyThis may be because observation provides an in-depth description of a phenomenon. Only one researcher applied a theoretical framework when conducting a case-control study. Gooder (2011) used PDF GENERATED BY PROQUEST.COM Page 3 of 16 the diffusion of innovation theory by Rogers (2003, as cited in Gooder, 2011). According to the author, the time frame within which this research was conducted may have affected findings as data collection ended five months after BCMA implementation (Gooder, 2011). This is because, some of the concepts in the theory was not relatable to the findings, and may have been different had the research been conducted at a later period after BCMA implementation. Thus, there is a gap in the application of theory to nursing research to support BCMA implementation and impact which needs to be addressed. Furthermore, nursing educators should consider equipping students with skills in selecting theories or concepts that fit the research topic. Findings from the literature did reveal some socio-technical factors that affected the capability of BCMA technology to prevent medication administration errors. This supports the socio-technical model for assessing health information technologies as proposed by Sittig and Singh (2010). There are variations between hospitals or nursing units on the impact of BCMA in reducing medication administration errors (Helmons et al.,2009; Seibert et al., 2014) and the type of medication administration error reduced (Bonkowski et al., 2013; Helmons et al., 2009; Poon et al., 2010). Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyEvidence mined from the review to potentially contribute to this disparity is largely linked to components of the socio-technical model as follows: • Hardware/Software infrastructure: Stability of wireless connection and power supply, scanning defects, and omitted or ineligible barcodes (Huang &Lee, 2011; Koppel et al., 2008; Snyder et al., 2010; Tsai et al., 2010; Yen et al., 2015). • Clinical content: Heterogeneity in patient condition, bed capacity, and classification of medications used (Cochran et al., 2016; Cochran &Haynatzki, 2013; Helmons et al., 2009; Seibert et al., 2014). • Human-computer interface: Nurses overriding alert signals and creating tactics to get over challenges faced while using the BCMA technology (Bowers et al., 2015; Hardmeier et al., 2014; Holden et al., 2013; Koppel et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2011). • Personnel: Attitudes towards the use of BCMA, consensus to use BCMA, and education (Fowler et al., 2009; Gooder, 2011; Poon et al., 2010). • Workflow and communication: Partnership with pharmacy staff and effective consultation between staff nurses and clinical administrators (Cochran et al., 2016; Cochran &Haynatzki, 2013; Poon et al., 2010). • System monitoring: Periodic standard evaluation of BCMA (DeYoung et al., 2009). Components of the socio-technical model that were not identified in the review are organizational policies and external regulations. It is important to note that some barriers to the successful implementation of BCMA technology can possibly be overcome if organizational or hospital policies and external regulations are in place for guidance. For instance, evidence-based policies and regulations can guide nurses in navigating human-computer interface challenges. This can significantly promote patient safety and deter nurses from developing tactics that could potentially cause medication administration errors, thereby putting patient lives at risk. Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographyOn the other hand, this could mean that nurses are developing problem-solving skills to tackle BCMA-related challenges. It also demonstrates that, there may be inadequate evidence-based policies and regulations in this regard or there is insufficient evidence on how BCMA technology is impacted by them. Before the implementation of BCMA technology or any other health information technology into a healthcare facility, there should be proper planning and extensive consultations. For example, issues such as interrupted power supply and unstable wireless connection (Huang &Lee, 2011; Tsai et al., 2010; Yen et al., 2015) could have been dealt with had it been factored into prior planning. The socioeconomic context into which the technology PDF GENERATED BY PROQUEST.COM Page 4 of 16 would be introduced should be considered in planning as well. This is because; studies which revealed issues with power supply and wireless connection were from middle-income countries and should have been anticipated. Power generators and accompanying costs such as fuel and maintenance should be budgeted for, to ensure the successful implementation of BCMA in developing countries. Also, a contingency plan should be devised based on best-practice evidence, to guide nurses in safely administering medications despite unstable wireless connections. It is recommended that a manual contingency plan be activated for “[a] shutdown of longer than 3 hours” (Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP Canada), 2013, p.144). Extensive collaboration should be carried out with the inclusion of staff nurses, before the implementation of BCMA technology. Discussion: Prevention of Medication Errors Annotated BibliographySome of the selected study findings suggested that nurses were discontent following the use of BCMA technology (Fowler et al., 2009; Gooder, 2011). This attitude can affect nurse productivity and quality of care. It is important to note that staff nurses are directly involved in patient care, and consequently, must be actively involved in the implementation of initiatives centred on patient safety. This can prevent negative attitudes towards the use of technology in patient care. Ideally, a BCMA implementation group should be made up of “leaders from pharmacy and nursing practices, a physician, an administrative representative, and front?line representation from pharmacy and selected patient care areas” (ISMP Canada, 2013, p.137) with support from the Information Technology (IT) department. Though staff nurses are not specifically mentioned, they are part of the “front-line representation from [….] selected patient care areas” (ISMP Canada, 2013, p.137). Additionally, workshops could be organized to continually train nurses on how to use the technology in order to eliminate discontent due to knowledge and skill deficits. Also, regular monitoring could be carried out to include BCMArelated complaints and suggestions from nurses to capture potential sources of dissatisfaction. Recommendations Though studies included in this review used various research methods, there were few qualitative or theory-based studies. This suggests a gap in evidence derived from these methods. Further research needs to be conducted using these methods in order to strengthen the quality of evidence. Furthermore, researchers may need to identify measures to help care units or organizations create an organizational culture that supports the BCMA technology in order to maximize impact. Nurse leaders should be involved in implementing BCMA and other health information technologies to ensure that nursi … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10 Order NowjQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘https://nursingpaperessays.com/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php’, {action: ‘wpt_view_count’, id: ‘20469’});});jQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘https://nursingpaperessays.com/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php’, {action: ‘mts_view_count’, id: ‘20469’});});

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