Discussion: Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood Pressure

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Discussion: Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood PressureDiscussion: Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood PressureI need a 1 page summary of the 3 papers your helped me with. All 3 papers are attached for you to reference. Please use APA format. Thanks wk2projcookea.docwk5projcookea.docwk7assgncookea.docDiscussion: Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood Pressure. Running head: IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED 1 The Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood Pressure amongst the Middle-Aged Walden University NURS 6052 Essentials of Evidence Based Practice December 7, 2017 Antwan Cooke IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED 2 Impact of High Blood Pressure on Middle-Aged Lifestyle Cardiovascular diseases have become a common issue in the present times. However, one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases is high blood pressure. As blood is pumped from the heart through the arteries to other body organs, it is necessary to maintain a particular level of pressure that should sustain the flow while at the same time aligning to the capacity of the blood vessels. When this pressure exceeds the pressure that the blood vessels can support, this could be devastating to both the blood vessels and the organs that receive this blood. In return, this affects the distribution of vital body requirements such as oxygen and nutrients. There are various studies that focus on this problem and more so due to its relevance in the healthcare sector. While many of these focus on particular at-risk groups, very few studies explore the overall issues pertaining the problem including causes, risk factors, interventions, prevention, and secondary illnesses. At the same time, the prevalence and risk factors of the disease may vary from time to time, which calls for a continuous update of the studies in order to identify the positioning of the problem at every one time. This impacts clear roles of nursing practice that have been established many years ago that center around patient education of hypertension management. “The role of nurses has been recognized for nearly 50 years in public and professional education to improve hypertension control promoted by the US National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee reports and other publications” (Himmelfarb, Mensah, & Hill 2016, para. 4). In an attempt to develop a clear understanding of the problem, this paper will develop a plan that will help in exploring various recent studies discussing various specific aspects of high blood pressure and consolidate the discussions into a single comprehensive document. Significance of the problem High blood pressure has become a common problem especially for the young and middle-aged. In this case, high blood pressure is responsible for at least 12% of the total IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED 3 annual mortalities around the world (Bromfield & Muntner, 2013). However, the prevalence of the disease may vary from place to place as well as from one population to another. According to Joffres, Falaschetti, Gillespie, Robitaille … Campbell (2013), more than 75 million Americans, which represents 29% of the total US population, suffers from high blood pressure. While this may be a major problem amongst the general population, races such as the non-Hispanic whites are at relatively higher risks of getting high blood pressure (Lackland, 2014). Unfortunately, some of these studies take a long time before their results are availed to the public.Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood PressureORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERSDiscussion: Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood Pressure. At the same time, the causes and risk factors may keep on changing from time to time. As reported by Lindsay, Connor, Joffres, Birtwhistle … Cloutier (2013), the lifestyle of that people lead at the present age has changed drastically from the lifestyles that they led a decade or two ago. Coincidentally, high blood pressure is one of the most common lifestyle diseases (Diaz & Shimbo, 2013). As a result, it is necessary to constantly update the prevalence, causes, risk factors, and the interventions available for the disease. This will then help the public to understand how to address the problem. There is a need to develop comprehensive results detailing every aspect of high blood pressure. It is evident that researchers have accorded high blood pressure the attention that it deserves. In this case, a simple search on various catalogs avails a large number of articles and books discussing various issues regarding the disease. Unfortunately, a simple analysis of the results indicates that most of these studies focus on a particular area rather than the whole problem. This leaves a lot of gaps in the results. While it may be important to generate the specific results as a way of creating a more meaningful understanding of that particular area, it is equally necessary to consolidate all the aspects of the disease. For instance, it is necessary to avail information regarding both the risk factors and the prevention at the same time in order to create the best impact. If this study is accomplished, it will thus be of high IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED 4 significance to the healthy population, patients with high blood pressure, health practitioners and caregivers, and the wider health sector. Research questions A number of research questions have been developed in order to help in exploring the problem. However, some of the most significant questions and a description of their feasibility will be discussed in this section. 1. What are the risk factors for high blood pressure? This is an important research question for this paper. In this case, it helps in identifying the things that make people susceptible to high blood pressure. As discussed by Tespaye, Byass & Wall (2009), for example, being middle-aged puts one at a higher risk of getting high blood pressure than it is the case for the elderly. At the same time, a group such as the non-Hispanic Whites in the US is at a relatively higher risk than the African Americans (Lackland, 2014). There is a lot of data regarding the risk factors, which means that this will be important while studying the problem. 2. What are the causes of high blood pressure? There are various causes of high blood pressure. While many studies have developed a set of causes regarding the disease, it is difficult to identify one that explores all the possible causes. As such, this area may need more focus as a way of developing a better understanding. 3. How prevalent is high blood pressure and how does it vary? High blood pressure is highly prevalent. As discussed earlier, however, this prevalence may vary from place to place as well as from one group to another. As such, exploring the IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED 5 prevalence from various regions may be important in order to generate results that best represent the general population. 4. What interventions are available for high blood pressure and which are the most appropriate? Various interventions exist regarding the disease.Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood PressureDiscussion: Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood Pressure. However, they may work differently for different groups. While most of these interventions are often generalized, it may be important to illustrate how well each of them works and to which group. 5. How does one know when they have high blood pressure? It is important to discuss the diagnosis of the disease. Similar to other diseases, high blood pressure has a number of signs and symptoms that one can evaluate to determine its existence as well as other laboratory tests that could be done to generate a better conclusion. Pico question This study will focus on the middle-aged as the population of the study. At the same time, the paper will also focus on a change of lifestyle as the intervention of the disease. The expected outcome revolves around a decline or rise in the risk factors of high blood pressure. In this paper, this will be represented by the chances of the disease. The following PICO question will thus guide this study. Does a change of lifestyle determine the chances of high blood pressure amongst the middle-aged population? Keywords It is important to develop a set of keywords that will guide the process of research. In order to generate good results, the following keywords have been developed after narrowing down the PICO question. IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED • High blood pressure • Prevalence of high blood pressure • Risk factors of high blood pressure • High blood pressure amongst the middle-aged • Impact of age on prevalence of high blood pressure • Interventions of high blood pressure • Causes of high blood pressure • How to prevent high blood pressure • Impact of lifestyle on high blood pressure • Lifestyles that contribute to high blood pressure 6 IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED References Bromfield, S., & Muntner, P. (2013). High Blood Pressure: The Leading Global Burden of Disease Risk Factor and the Need for Worldwide Prevention Programs. Current Hypertension Reports, 15(3), 134–136. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-013-0340-9 Diaz, K. M., & Shimbo, D. (2013). Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension. Current Hypertension Reports, 15(6), 659–668. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-013-0386-8 Himmelfarb, C., Mensh, Y., & Hill, M. (2016). Expanding the Role of Nurses to Improve Hypertension Care and Control Globally. Obtained from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221499961600028X Joffres, M., Falaschetti, E., Gillespie, C., Robitaille, C., Loustalot, F., Poulter, N., … Campbell, N. (2013). Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in national surveys from England, the USA and Canada, and correlation with stroke and ischaemic heart disease mortality: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 3(8), e003423. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003423 Lackland, D. T. (2014). Racial Differences in Hypertension: Implications for High Blood Pressure Management. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 348(2), 135– 138. http://doi.org/10.1097/MAJ.0000000000000308 Lindsay, P., Connor Gorber, S., Joffres, M., Birtwhistle, R., McKay, D., & Cloutier, L. (2013). Recommendations on screening for high blood pressure in Canadian adults. Canadian Family Physician, 59(9), 927–933. Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood PressureDiscussion: Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood Pressure. 7 IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED 8 Tesfaye, F., Byass, P., & Wall, S. (2009). Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 9, 39. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-9-39 Literature Review Summary Table NURS 6052 Name: Antwan Cooke Citation Type of Study Setting Key Concepts/Variables Findings Hierarchy of Evidence Level Concepts: Prevalence of diseases across the world has been changing, and with hypertension ranking amongst the leading causes of death for the past few decades. Hypertension has been the leading single cause of death for the past few decades. Contrary to the initial misconception that developing nations are the only ones at risk of an increase in the mortality rate due to hypertension, developed nations are equally affected. This means that the economic impacts such as lifestyle differences, foods consumed, and awareness levels determine the prevalence of hypertension. Although intervention programs should be established in both developing and developed countries, more emphasis should be placed on developing countries. Their risks are more pronounced as a result of the poor lifestyles that people lead. Less significant. Important for creating a foundation and a global overview of hypertension and a comparison against other GBDs. Design Type Framework/Theory Bromfield, S., & Muntner, P. (2013). High Blood Pressure: The Leading Global Burden of Disease Risk Factor and the Need for Worldwide Prevention Programs. Current Hypertension Reports, 15(3), 134– 136. http://doi.org/10.1007/s 11906-013-0340-9 Global Type of Study: Secondary Design Type: Report Framework/Theory: Hypertension is, and has over time been, the leading cause of death around the world. However, its prevalence could be caused by economic gaps and other risk factors such as age. Independent Variable: Global burden of disease (GBD). Dependent Variable: Mortality rate Controlled Variable: Economic factors, age. Although differences are identified in the prevalence of hypertension amongst both developing and developed nations, it may be necessary to conduct studies that will lead to customized prevention, treatment, and control based on the economy of a region. 1 Literature Review Summary Table NURS 6052 Lackland, D. T. (2014). Racial Differences in Hypertension: Implications for High Blood Pressure Management. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 348(2), 135–138. http://doi.org/10.1097/ MAJ.000000000000030 8 Type of Study: Secondary Design Type: Integrative review Framework/Theory: Racial disparities are common in both the prevalence of diseases and mortalities. In hypertension, there are various factors associated with racial disparities, and that may put some of the races at a higher risk than others. The United States. Concepts: Blood pressure amongst African Americans has been high than in Caucasians. Lifestyle differs across races in the US. Independent Variable: Prevalence of hypertension Dependent Variable: Race Controlled Variable: Age, comorbidities. Clinical guidelines have shown a high prevalence of hypertension amongst the African Americans. Other races such Discussion: Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood Pressure. as the Caucasians face relatively lower risks of the same, which is evident in both mortalities, ratio of diagnosis, and associated comorbidities. Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood PressureDiscussion: Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood Pressure. The lifestyles and factors associated with hypertension also differ from one race to another to another. The lifestyles of different cultures and groups needs to be considered when developing intervention and management programs that should help in addressing the hypertension due their high influence on its prevalence. There is insufficient evidence in studies to justify the differences in factors associated with racial disparities as well as the differences in prevalence. This calls for focused research based on these gaps. Strong evidence. Analyzes tens of primary studies. Literature Review Summary Table NURS 6052 Citation Study Design Type Framework/Theory Diaz, K. M., & Shimbo, D. (2013). Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension. Current Hypertension Reports, 15(6), 659–668. http://doi.org/10.1007/s 11906-013-0386-8 Type of Study: Secondary research Setting Global Design Type: Integrative review Framework/Theory: Prevalence has been on the increase and prevention is becoming increasingly significant. Key Concepts/Variables Findings Hierarchy of Evidence Level Concepts: Lifestyle could be key to achieving a success in improving prevention of hypertension. Many studies also indicate that different people may respond differently to various physical activities based on their body processes. However, all existing literature and studies strongly support a positive relationship between physical activity and the prevalence of hypertension. Some physical activities may be more successful than others in the prevention and management of hypertension. Physical activity thus needs to be well developed alongside other lifestyles such as food consumption and social lives. Very strong evidence. The study explores tens of primary studies and analyzes their findings to derive a more reliable conclusion. Independent Variable: Prevalence of hypertension. Dependent Variable: Physical activity. Controlled Variable: Gender, age, other risk factors. Yang, M. H., Kang, S. Y., Lee, J. A., Kim, Y. S., Sung, E. J., Lee, K.Y., … Lee, S. Y. (2017). The Effect of Lifestyle Changes on Blood Pressure Control among Hypertensive Patients. Korean Journal of Family Medicine, 38(4), 173– 180. http://doi.org/10.4082/k Type of Study: Primary research Design Type: Survey Framework/Theory: Hypertension is common for patients that occasionally seek primary care. However, lifestyle behaviors could be Korea Concepts: Hypertension is a lifestyle disease. Lifestyle modifications may be necessary during the period of intervention. Independent Variable: Hypertension control Dependent Variable: Gaps thus appear on the prescription of physical activities on at-risk individuals and hypertension patients, which call for further studies. Poor physical activity led to weight gain. Consuming high amounts of salt, weight gain, and inadequate physical activity created more risks of getting hypertension and led to increased period of recovery. Proper lifestyle balance reduced the need for medication amongst many patients. Physicians should thus modify the lifestyles of patients so as to achieve better results. The evidence is highly reliable. This study will form a critical part of the research. Literature Review Summary Table NURS 6052 jfm.2017.38.4.173Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood PressureDiscussion: Impact of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of High Blood Pressure. Patients’ lifestyles (increased salt intake and physical activity) integrated into their care so as to help them achieve better results. Controlled Variable: Age, sex Babaee Beigi, M. A., Zibaeenezhad, M. J., Aghasadeghi, K., Jokar, A., Shekarforoush, S., & Khazraei, H. (2014). The Effect of Educational Programs on Hypertension Management. International Cardiovascular Research Journal, 8(3), 94–98. Type of Study: Primary Design Type: Quasi-experimental study Framework/Theory: Hypertension creates the greatest risk for other chronic illnesses such as CDVs and stroke. Education programs could be an important part in creating awareness and creating lifestyle change, which will then improve response to these diseases. Iran Concepts: Hypertension creates the greatest risk for other chronic illnesses such as CDVs and stroke. Effectiveness of educational programs would thus indirectly influence prevalence of the chronic illnesses. Independent Variable: Short-term educational programs. Dependent Variable: Lifestyle changes, knowledge levels, and blood pressure. Controlled Variable: Healthcare providers should make it a priority for them to evaluate their patients’ needs and develop lifestyles that should be adopted alongside medications for their primary care. The study identifies multiple other lifestyles that had been mentioned by the existing literature as having a potential impact. This study may thus need to be expanded so as to create more reliable results. Educational programs raised controlled hypertension response through lifestyle by close to five times and awareness and treatment at relatively the same rate. This could then be important in improving self-management and enhancing the control of detrimental lifestyles, which then help in managing hypertension and its comorbidities. Patients and the general society should be taught to manage themselves through adoption of a healthy lifestyle rather than just relying on the decisions of their cater givers. The study covered limited lifestyles. In fact, the authors insisted that their lack of covering issues such as smoking cessation could have an impact on their study. There is thus a need for a more comprehensive study that is also not limited geographically. The evidence is limited due to the low sample size. However, the study can be important in developing a set of probable lifestyle changes and factors. Literature Review Summary Table NURS 6052 Running head: QUALITATIVE VS. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS High Blood Pressure: Qualitative Vs. Quantitative Research Designs Walden University NURS 6052 Antwan Cooke January 13, 2018 1 QUALITATIVE VS. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS Information Gained from the Two Resources There are many questions that arise in relation to the differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches when it comes to medical research. In this paper, two papers – each featuring each approach – will be critiqued and the differences between the two approaches will be discussed so as to develop a better comparison. At the same time, the issue of whether or not qualitative research is scientific research will also be explored so as to create a clear picture. Application, Advantages, and Disadvantages A lot of information has been gained from the two … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10 Order NowjQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘https://nursingpaperessays.com/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php’, {action: ‘wpt_view_count’, id: ‘9898’});});jQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘https://nursingpaperessays.com/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php’, {action: ‘mts_view_count’, id: ‘9898’});});

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