Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal Justice

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Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal JusticeORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal JusticeDiscuss why analyzing data is important in the field of criminal justice. Explain your reasoning in detail. To write your Discuss post, follow the steps in this tutorial: Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal Justice your discussion post tutorial worksheet to the Dropbox for credit by Wednesday at 11:59 pm CST. Respond to this question with a minimum of 250 words and two scholarly sources from the Library by Wednesday at 11:59 pm CST. tutorial_worksheet__1_.docx_vi_unit_1_read1.pdfHOW TO RESEARCH FOR YOUR ESSAYS SEARCH STRATEGY 1. What’s your topic? 2. What keyword synonyms will you search in the databases? 3. Which general resource(s) and which specific resource(s) will you use for your essay? For example, a general resource is the World Encyclopedia of Police Forces and a specific resource is American Journal of Criminal Justice from the EBSCO database. PULL IT TOGETHER 1. Look through the articles you have and take notes on what the authors say. 2. How would you explain your argument to a coworker? a. What’s your claim? b. What’s your evidence? c. Does any research disagree with your claim? d. What’s your response to the objections? GIVE CREDIT 1. Did you include an author’s idea in your paper? For help, contact 615.277.8980 ⃞ Yes ⃞ No 2. Did you paraphrase? ⃞ Check your paraphrase by comparing it to the original source. Is your wording and sentence structure unique? ⃞ Did you include an in-text citation after your paraphrase? 3. Did you use the exact words from a sentence you read? ⃞ Did you put the exact words in quotation marks? ⃞ Is there an in-text citation with a page number in the sentence? For help, contact 615.277.8980 © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. Table of Contents M I L E S , S H A N N O N 1 9 0 9 T S 16304_TTLX_Walker.indd 1 8/3/12 11:52:21 AM © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. World Headquarters Jones & Bartlett Learning 5 Wall Street Burlington, MA 01803 978-443-5000 Jones & Bartlett Learning books and products are available through most bookstores and online booksellers. To contact Jones & Bartlett Learning directly, call 800-832-0034, fax 978-443-8000, or visit our website, www.jblearning. com. Substantial discounts on bulk quantities of Jones & Bartlett Learning publications are available to corporations, professional associations, and other qualified organizations. For details and specific discount information, contact the special sales department at Jones & Bartlett Learning via the above contact information or send an email to M I Copyright © 2013 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company All rights reserved. Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal JusticeNo part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form, elecL tronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. E This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the Subject Matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged inS rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the service of a competent professional person should , be sought. Statistics in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Analysis and Interpretation, Fourth Edition is an independent publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by the owners of the trademarks or service marks referenced in this product. S Some images in this book feature models. These models do not necessarily endorse, represent, or participate in the H activities represented in the images. A Production Credits Publisher: Cathleen Sether N Acquisitions Editor: Sean Connelly Editorial Assistant: Caitlin Murphy N Associate Production Editor: Rebekah Linga Marketing Manager: Lindsay White O Manufacturing and Inventory Control Supervisor: Amy Bacus N Composition: Northeast Compositors, Inc. Cover Design: Kristin E. Parker Cover Image: © artida/ShutterStock, Inc. Printing and Binding: Edwards Brothers Malloy Cover Printing: Edwards Brothers Malloy 1 To order this product, use ISBN: 978-1-4496-8860-8 9 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 0 Walker, Jeffery T. Statistics in criminology and criminal justice : analysis and interpretation / Jeffery T. Walker and Sean Maddan. 9 — 4th ed. p. cm. T Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4496-1630-4 (pbk.) — ISBN 1-4496-1630-5 (pbk.) S 1. Criminal justice, Administration of–Statistical methods. 2. Criminal statistics–Research. I. Maddan, Sean. II. Title. HV7415.W32 2013 364.01’5195–dc23 2012015761 6048 Printed in the United States of America 16 15 14 13 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 16304_TTLX_Walker.indd 2 8/3/12 11:52:21 AM © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. THEORY METHODS Observation Primary Question Research Questions Null Hypothesis M I L E SAssignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal Justice, Research Hypotheses Research Design Concepts S H A Operationalization N N Variables O N Gather Data Draw Conclusions 1 9 0 Statistical Analysis 9 T S Communicate Results 16304_CH01_Walker.indd 2 8/2/12 3:24:51 PM © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. Chapter 1 The Logic of Comparisons and Analysis Statistical thinking will one day be asMnecessary for efficient citizenship as I the ability to read and write. Learning Objectives L E S , —H. G. Wells Understand the difference between statistics and math. Explain the role of statistics in the process of scientific inquiry. S ■■ Discuss the relationship among theory, research methods, and statistics. H ■■ Identify the steps in the research process. ■■ Understand the relationship among Aprimary questions, research questions, null hypotheses, and research hypotheses. N ■■ ■■ N Introduction: WhyOAnalyze Data? Discovery and innovation may be the distinguishing characteristics between modern N 1-1 human activity and that of our ancestors. The Renaissance period brought forth an emphasis on learning and advancing our way of doing things that has prevailed to the present. Scientists, inventors, and others1involved in the process of scientific inquiry have often been held in awe for their works. 9 Galileo, Einstein, Madam Curie, and others are singled out in grade school books for their works and discoveries. As you will 0 learn, so too should be people such as Pearson, Kendall, and Yule. 9 The process of scientific inquiry proStatistical analysis is all about discovery. vides a method of examining things thatTinterest us in a systematic manner. This process generally requires evidence to support an argument. One of the clearest methods S of establishing evidence is by examining numbers associated with the objects being studied. That examination takes place through statistical analysis. As such, statistical analysis is the linchpin of discovery, and mastery of it draws us closer to Einstein and Galileo. 3 16304_CH01_Walker.indd 3 8/2/12 3:24:52 PM © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 4    Chapter 1 1-2 n The Logic of Comparisons and Analysis Some Statistical History The earliest form of what is now considered statistical analysis was developed by Pythagoras in the 6th century BC. This was the forerunner of descriptive statistics (what would eventually be known as the mean, or what is commonly known as an average). Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal JusticeThe other type of statistical analysis (inferential statistics) is thought to have first developed in the Orient around 200 BC (Dudycha and Dudycha, 1972). This was a form of probability analysis used in assessing whether an expected child was likely to be male or female. Probability theory, as it would come to be known, continM ued in the form of gambling mathematics in the works of Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) I and Lord Christianus Huygens (1629–1695) (David, 1962). Many of the other descriptive statistics were developed in the late 1800sLand early 1900s by mathematicians and scientists such as Galton (1883) and Pearson (1895). E Statistics moved beyond gambling and purely mathematical concepts through what was called political arithmetic, a term S coined because of its close association with those studying political topics, including , economics. (This probably began the close association between political lying and statistical lying.) The first known use of this political arithmetic was by John Graunt (1662), who used what is now called descriptive statistics to study London’s deathSrates. Although there is fierce debate concerning the original use of the term statistics H (Yule, 1905), the position with the greatest support is that it was coined by Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmerman in the preface of A Political Survey of the PresentAState of Europe (1787). Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal JusticeModern use of Nis often attributed to R. A. Fisher and the term statistics (as opposed to mathematics) his work Statistical Methods for Research Workers N (1925), wherein he stated that “a statistic is a value calculated from an observed sample with a view to characterizing the population from which it is drawn.” SinceO that time, statisticians have added to the techniques available to analyze data, many adding N their names to the procedures; and the addition of statistical techniques continues today. Analysis procedures have been added to the statistical repertoire in the past few years that have greatly increased the 1 and other fields to examine the relaability of researchers in sociology, criminology, tionship between variables more accurately. 9 0 is a statistic. A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths 1-3 Uses of Statistics 9 T S —Joseph Stalin The term statistics is often misunderstood because there are actually two practical applications of it. The first, reflecting the history of the term, is a collection of data—­ often expressed in summary form—that is collected and preserved. The best example of these are census statistics or mortality statistics, which depict the characteristics of 16304_CH01_Walker.indd 4 8/2/12 3:24:52 PM © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 1-4 Theory Construction at a Glance 5 the living or the causes of death, respectively. The second application is the subject of this text: a method of analyzing data. Statistics as you will come to know them are methods used to examine data collected in the process of scientific inquiry. These methods allow researchers to think logically about the data and to do one of two things: to come to some succinct and meaningful conclusions about the data (descriptive statistics), or to determine—or infer—characteristics of large groups based on the data collected on small parts (samples) of the group (inferential statistics). For example, data could be gathered on all correctional officers in Arkansas for a research M project to determine the sex and race breakdown of the officers.Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal JusticeThis would be a descriptive analysis that could be used to I Arkansas Department of Correction. Alterexamine the employment patterns for the L from each state could be collected and the natively, a sample of correctional officers data from the sample used to make statements about all correctional officers in the E nation. This would be drawing conclusions (inferences) about a large group based on information about a sample of the group.S Statistical analysis is the workhorse of , discovery and knowledge. The scientific process, using research to test theory, requires that empirical evidence (data) drawn from the research subjects be examined systematically. The use of mathematics in general and statistical analysis in particular allowsSresearchers to make these comparisons and to discover new information that will provide Ha better understanding of their subject. In the scientific process, the purpose is usually to discover something that was A previously unknown or to prove something true or false that was previously thought to be true but was never supported by hardN evidence. The way to obtain that evidence is by gathering information (data) and subjecting N it to statistical analysis. 1-4 O Theory Construction N at a Glance Three elements in social science research, or any research for that matter, are essential to sound investigation: theory, research1methods, and statistical analysis. Although these elements are intimately linked, there is debate—even among those most sup9 ordering, importance, and what should be portive of the research process—on their included from each element in a textbook.Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal Justice0 It is not possible to cover all of these elements adequately in one course or in one textbook, so it becomes an issue of how 9 much of each element should be included in a discussion of the other. In this book, T research spans this chapter and several that theory is covered primarily in this chapter, follow, and statistical analysis prevails thereafter. S What Is Theory? At the most basic level, theory consists of statements concerning the relationship or association among social phenomena such as events and characteristics of people or 16304_CH01_Walker.indd 5 8/2/12 3:24:52 PM © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 6    Chapter 1 n The Logic of Comparisons and Analysis things. For example, in criminology, there are theories addressing how people learn to be criminal. In these theories, statements are constructed dealing with the role of peers in a person’s learning criminal behavior, how the rewards from a crime can influence behavior, and what influence punishment can have on the decision to commit a crime. The goal of these statements is to develop explanations of why things are as they appear and to try to explain their meaning. From an early age, humans have ideas about the causes of events and why things work the way that they do. The problem with these explanations, however, is that they Mare often too simplistic to be of any real value. Theory attempts to provide a stronger foundation for these ideas by asking I questions about them, such as: ■■ What is the point of all of this? ■■ What does it mean? Why are things this way? ■■ L E S , conjecture Without theory, there is often only and war stories. With theory, we may begin to develop statements or ideas that are based on sound observation and thought. S H Theory and Research Theory may be developed in several ways. Researchers may look at the world around A them, find the social phenomena that pique their interest, and begin to develop stateN ments concerning why these phenomena work the way they do. This is called inducN crime trends in a city for a number tion.Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal JusticeAn example could be a researcher who follows of years. She may begin to see that the crimesOfollow a definite pattern of movement in the city, moving from east to west across the city. From this, she might set out to N determine what the cause of this movement could be, ultimately developing a theory of crime movement in urban areas. This is a process of moving from data to theory and attempting to make sense of the data with the 1 theory. Alternatively, researchers may become curious about something and set out to 9 develop statements and then to test them. This is called deduction. The process of deduction begins with an idea and an attempt to0test the idea with data and analysis. For example, a researcher might believe that increased 9 supervision of probationers would prevent them from becoming involved in subsequent crimes. This researcher might T create an experiment where a random sample of probationers are put under intensive S a normal amount of supervision. supervision while another random sample receives The results of this experiment could either support or refute the researcher’s initial beliefs. This is a process of moving from theory to data, where the data tests the theory. It should be noted that Sherlock Holmes was not exactly correct in his understanding of the difference between induction and deduction. When Holmes made his famous 16304_CH01_Walker.indd 6 8/2/12 3:24:52 PM © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 1-5 The Process of Scientific Inquiry 7 statement, “brilliant deduction, Watson!”, he should actually have been commending Watson on his inductive reasoning. Watson was drawing conclusions based on what he had observed, not testing previously developed conclusions. Finally, and probably most often the case, a researcher may start with either induction or deduction, but by the time a project is finished, he or she has used both induction and deduction. This is called retroduction. With this process, the researcher investigating supervision of probationers might conduct the intensive supervision experiment as a deductive process. After examining the data, however, it might be obvious that the experiment could be done better or that there was M something in the data that needed further explanation. For example, those probationers who received the most supervision were I successful, whereas those who received intensive, but less than the most intensive, supervision were not successful. Assignment: Statistics Data Analysis In Criminal JusticeThe researcherL might then rethink part of the theory and set out to retest it. This process might continue until E the theory was supported or disproven. This is a process of moving from theory to data to theory and so on; or data to theory to data and S process between induction and deduction. so on. The key here is that it is an alternating , 1-5 The Process of Scientific Inquiry S The process of scientific inquiry (using a deductive method) is shown in Figure 1-1. As shown in this diagram, theory is atH the starting point of the process. Theory is driven by observations and leads researchers A to initiate the research process through primary questions and research questions. It is from this process of theory building that researchers follow the process fromNdeveloping a null hypothesis to communicating results. The process of scientific N inquiry and its individual parts are discussed further in the remainder of the chapter. O Observation and Inquisitiveness N The first steps in the process of scientific inquiry, and among the most important, are often overlooked: observation and inquisitiveness. Many research projects are never 1 begun because the researcher was not aware of his or her surroundings or did not rec9 ognize something as a topic worthy of research. It is often theory that stimulates observation and scientific inquiry. As you go 0 through school and read research and material you find interesting, you will sometimes 9 think that you have a better way to do something, or what you read may stimulate you T process to evaluate your observations in other areas. By using a structured scientific and formulate statements of why these phenomena are behaving the way they are, you S are developing theory. An example of inductive theory development can be shown in Robert Burgess’s Zonal Hypothesis. Students at the University of Chicago were making maps of Chicago showing different characteristics of neighborhoods, such as welfare, infant 16304_CH01_Walker.indd 7 8/2/12 3:24:52 PM © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 8    Chapter 1 n The Logic of Comparisons and Analysis THEORY METHODS Observation Primary Question Research Questions Null Hypothesis M I L E S Concepts , Research Hypotheses Research Design S H A Variables N N O Gather Data N Operationalization Statistical Analysis Draw Conclusions Communicate Results 1 9 0 9 T S Figure 1-1 Process of Scientific Inquiry: Theory, Research Methods, and Statistical Analysis 16304_CH01_Walker.indd 8 8/2/12 3:24:52 PM © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 1-5 The Process of Scientific Inquiry 9 ­ ortality, and housing. Burgess observed that these maps followed very similar patm terns throughout the city. His observations led him to develop a theory about how cities grow and change. The theory he developed from these maps proposed that cities grow in rings similar to when a rock is thrown into the water. In this configuration, the … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10 Order NowjQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘’, {action: ‘wpt_view_count’, id: ‘17803’});});jQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘’, {action: ‘mts_view_count’, id: ‘17803’});});

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