Assignment: Risks for Child Protection of Sexual Abuse Worksheet

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Assignment: Risks for Child Protection of Sexual Abuse WorksheetORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON  Assignment: Risks for Child Protection of Sexual Abuse WorksheetOpen an article. Type the name of the article and the authors’ names as well. Find the transition and keywords, for example, abuse, COVID, however, or according to. Post it on the word document. List them on the two columns. One with keys words and the second with the transition words. Assignment: Risks for Child Protection of Sexual Abuse WorksheetAll in APA format children_on_the_brink_risks_fo__2_.pdfDisclaimer: This is a machine generated PDF of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace original scanned PDF. Neither Cengage Learning nor its licensors make any representations or warranties with respect to the machine generated PDF. The PDF is automatically generated “AS IS” and “AS AVAILABLE” and are not retained in our systems. CENGAGE LEARNING AND ITS LICENSORS SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTIES FOR AVAILABILITY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS, COMPLETENESS, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Your use of the machine generated PDF is subject to all use restrictions contained in The Cengage Learning Subscription and License Agreement and/or the Gale Academic OneFile Terms and Conditions and by using the machine generated PDF functionality you agree to forgo any and all claims against Cengage Learning or its licensors for your use of the machine generated PDF functionality and any output derived therefrom. Children on the brink: Risks for child protection, sexual abuse, and related mental health problems in the COVID-19 pandemic. Authors: Sheila Ramaswamy and Shekhar Seshadri Date: Sept. 2020 From: Indian Journal of Psychiatry(Vol. 62, Issue 9) Publisher: Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd. Document Type: Article Length: 8,115 words Full Text: Byline: Sheila. Ramaswamy, Shekhar. Seshadri In developing contexts such as India, children in adversity form a high-risk group, one that cannot be subsumed under the general category of children, who are generally considered as a vulnerable group in disaster and crisis situations. Child mental health issues in contexts of protection risks and childhood adversity tend to be over-looked in such crises. This article focuses on examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and its socio-economic consequences on children in adversity, describing the increased child protection and psychosocial risks they are placed at, during and in the immediate aftermath of the COVID-19 crisis and its lockdown situation. It specifically links the lockdown and the ensuing economic issues to sexuality and abuse-related risks, as occur in contexts of child labour, child sex work and trafficking, child marriage and child sexual abuse, and that result in immediate and long-term mental health problems in children. It proposes a disaster risk reduction lens to offer recommendations to address the emerging child protection, psychosocial and mental health concerns. Introduction Although the COVID-19 pandemic is a recent phenomenon, there is already an emerging literature on its adverse protection, psychosocial, and mental health effects on children.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5] While the perspectives presented thus far are useful, it is imperative, as in any crisis, to examine its impact on the most vulnerable populations. Assignment: Risks for Child Protection of Sexual Abuse WorksheetIt is also well-established that neither all population groups are impacted equally by a given disaster, nor are access to disaster assistance and mitigation services and resources[6],[7] – so, because some are less ‘equal than others,’ they are more severely impacted, in ways that have long-term life consequences. In developing contexts such as India, children in adversity form a high-risk group – one that cannot be subsumed under the general category of children, who are generally considered as a vulnerable group in disaster and crisis situations. This article focuses on examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and its socioeconomic consequences on children in adversity, describing the increased child protection and psychosocial risks they are placed at, during and in the immediate aftermath of the COVID-19 crisis and its lockdown situation. It specifically links the lockdown and the ensuing economic issues to sexuality and abuse-related risks, aspects that often tend to be over-looked in such crises, and the consequent mental health problems; it proposes a disaster risk reduction lens to offer recommendations to address the emerging child protection and ‘psychosocial’ and mental health concerns. COVID-19 context in India vis-Ã -vis children Disease and mortality in children The health and mortality impact of COVID on children is varied, and age-dependent. The largest study to date of children and the virus[8] has found that most develop mild or moderate symptoms, and only a small percentage, especially babies and preschoolers, can become seriously ill. The study, which included over 2000 children, found that about half of them had mild symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, cough, congestion, and possibly nausea or diarrhea, over a third of them became moderately sick, with additional symptoms including pneumonia or lung problems, but with no obvious shortness of breath; that only about 6% developed very serious illness (these were the very young children) and that only one child died. The researchers concluded therefore that while children may become infected like adults, the severity of the illness is considerably less, with only a handful of (young) children requiring aggressive treatment.[8] Thus, most children, especially those who are above the age of 5 years, are probably not at serious risk of severe health impacts and mortality due to COVID. Consequently, (older) children, while they must follow social distancing and other precautions, because they constitute a risk for transmission, may not need to be prioritized as a vulnerable group from a health and mortality perspective. General psychological impact on children According to the UN policy brief on COVID-19 and need for action on mental health concerns, the pandemic has led to widespread psychological distress due to the consequences of social and physical isolation, and of (the fear of) loss of income and livelihoods; children and adolescents are faced with new emotional difficulties, of social isolation and disrupted education. Assignment: Risks for Child Protection of Sexual Abuse WorksheetThese troubles are exacerbated by family stress, probable increases in abuse (for some), and the unpredictability of their future lives.[9] As of April 2020, social distancing measures implemented in much of the world, have not only caused disruptions to children’s daily routines but also for 90% of enrolled learners to be out of education, due to closure of schools and educational institutions. For children with mental health issues, school routines serve as a coping mechanism and an anchor; for others, the closures have caused loss of access to mental health resources they have through schools.[4] Parents and caregivers are having to work remotely, if at all, while also looking after their children for what maybe an indefinite period. For many, especially for low-income families, living in (over) crowded homes, keeping their children busy and safe is challenging. Parents and children are living in stressful situations, characterized by fear and uncertainty. The economic impact of the pandemic also increases parenting stress, abuse, and violence against children.[10] The lockdown and its economic impact on poor and vulnerable groups The Covid-19 pandemic, like everywhere else in the world, has had an adverse impact on the Indian economy. With the prolonged country-wide lockdown, global economic downturn, and attendant disruption of demand and supply chains, the Indian economy is likely to face a lengthy period of slowdown.[11] In India, unemployment rose from 6.7% in mid-March to 26% on April 19, 2020.[12] More than half of the nation’s households report a major drop in income.[13] The enforcement of the lockdown had a negative impact on vulnerable populations. There has been rising hunger particularly among those who work in the informal economy.[14] Many migrant workers and their families have been left without food and jobs, and forced to return to their homes in the rural areas.[15] Thus, among the most economically vulnerable, migrant labor, and others employed in informal sectors, farmers, and daily wage earners, were faced with a sudden loss of livelihoods and income, poor access to food, shelter, and other basic needs, exacerbating their already difficult existences. As the lockdown eases with the government gradually permitting movement and economic activity to resume, with continued adherence to social distancing norms and other safety precautions, the Indian government has also announced special economic packages and safety net measures for the vulnerable. However, given the prediction for low economic growth and the time that it will take for the global economy, including the Indian economy to recover from the losses and impacts of the pandemic,[11] the lives and existence of the poor and vulnerable population groups in the country, may continue to become increasingly precarious in the medium to long term. Assignment: Risks for Child Protection of Sexual Abuse WorksheetAs is well established, the poorest groups are the most adversely impacted by disasters,[16],[17] natural, manmade or disease (as in this case); they have little to no assets to begin with limited means of social protection, thus making it hard for them to recover from or mitigate the impact of disaster.[18] Therefore, the little resources they have would be consumed in times of disaster,[19] further exacerbating their already unstable existence. Heightened vulnerability of children in adversity While the impacts relating to restriction of physical mobility, social isolation, and uncertainty may be common to all children, when the lockdown lifts, many children can start returning to school and resuming their daily lives. However, there is a (sub) group of children who are unlikely to be able to do so; they will be impacted far more severely than others, and interestingly, it is in fact when the lockdown lifts and the possibility of resuming economic activities opens up, that these children are going to be at increasing risk. This subgroup, containing large numbers in India, comprises children in adversity or children living in difficult circumstances. India is home to over 30% of almost 385 million children living in extreme poverty or adversity, the highest in South Asia.[20] For children, ‘adversity’ has been defined as the experience of life events and circumstances which may combine to threaten or challenge healthy development.[21] This definition assumes that children’s developmental trajectories can be affected by various adverse factors such as incidents of physical or sexual abuse, traumatic incidents of loss and bereavement, chronic situations such as environments of neglect, experiences of discrimination, and family stressors, structural inequalities, and socioeconomic disadvantages.[22] Children in adversity thus belong to families characterized by various demographic vulnerabilities such as poor socioeconomic status and unemployment, single-parent families, migrant labor, daily wage earners, and psychosocial risks such as neglect, violence, abuse, parental marital discord, illness/disability in primary caregivers, separation from caregivers due to death or abandonment and so on. Always vulnerable, both demographic and psychosocial vulnerabilities are likely to be exacerbated by the COVID pandemic, placing them at heightened risks of child protection and psychosocial problems. When their primary caregivers lose employment and the family suffers loss of income and livelihoods, children will be at risk of being engaged in child labor. It has been observed, previously also in the 2008 global economic crisis that such situations deepen poverty and result in increased child labor.[23],[24] However, while poverty or a sudden downturn in a family’s economic well-being may not be a direct determinant in the chances that a child will enter child labor, they are certainly factors in household decisions regarding the coping strategies they choose to adopt; when faced with economic shock, these strategies may also include reassessment of the allocation of children’s time, in terms of education, training, or work.[25] While there may be a push factor from within families, who may have little choice but to use their children as a means for economic support, there is also likely to be a pull factor in certain states in the country: In an effort to attract investment and restart economic activity that was affected by coronavirus-induced lockdown, some state governments are in the process of changing their labor laws. Assignment: Risks for Child Protection of Sexual Abuse Worksheet#[26] The combined factors of relaxation of safety measures and other forms of monitoring as usually provided by the labor law, and a shortage of labor created by the mass exodus of migrant labor from cities, is likely to cause increased risk of children entering the labor market. In an economic downturn, economic enterprises are likely to view engagement of child labor as being advantageous as they would fulfill ‘low skill’ labor needs, they are easily exploited with low wages, and there are no unions to help them bargain for better deals.[27] In addition, the informal economy creates conditions for exploitation and child labor, which is also difficult to regulate and monitor, thus constituting an increased institutional vulnerability factor for child labor.[28] Child Protection and Psychosocial Risks for Children in Adversity The economic crises created by the COVID-19 pandemic are likely also to lead to abuse and exploitation of children in adversity, through exposure to child labor activities as well as directly through sex trafficking, as discussed below. Furthermore, child marriage, which also has been shown to increase in times of economic crises, is another route through which children will be sexually abused. Child labor and sexual abuse Surprisingly, the literature is relatively silent about the sexual abuse experiences of those engaged in child labor and much of it focuses on children in the street, who may be variously engaged in activities for survival and/or income generation for their families, and their vulnerabilities to different forms of violence and abuse,[24],[29],[30] i.e., it does not focus on the abuse experiences of children working in different types of occupations. Given the vulnerability and powerlessness of those who are forced into child labor, [31] and the separation from families and loss of social networks that migrant child labor is especially characterized by, the risk of sexual abuse is high. However, the literature acknowledges that in times of emergency and crisis, the likelihood of children migrating to cities and entering the labor force is high, and consequently, these children become susceptible to exploitation.[29] Many of these children work in the streets and are at higher risk of exploitation and verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, with both male and female children reporting that they are openly propositioned by adults for sexual intercourse.[30] Many children engaging in the informal sector, especially girls working as domestic help and in the streets (hawking or begging) are also subjected to sexual abuse.[32],[33] Suffering from hunger, and with the burden of supporting their families, they are sexually exploited and forced into prostitution, placing them at risk of pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections.[33] Child sex work and trafficking According to the ecological framework, there are several levels of risk factors for leading children to sex work and sex trafficking,[34], [35] which typically starts in early adolescence.[36] At the individual level, children with a history of abuse and neglect[37] and who are homeless[38] and abandoned by their families[39] are most vulnerable; at family level, domestic violence and other family dysfunction are risk factors; and community level factors include social isolation, poverty, under-resourced, and high crime neighborhoods.[40] In addition, children in adversity characterized by other factors such as history of substance abuse, disability, mental/physical/intellectual difficulties, families involvement in prostitution and pornography, poverty and unemployment in the family, gender inequity/discrimination, sexualization through prior victimization by child sexual abuse, are also vulnerable to sex trafficking.[41] Although accurate data are hard to come by on this issue, the recent studies and surveys estimate that there are about 3 million sex workers in the country, of which an estimated 40% are children.[42] The superimposition of the economic crisis resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic would only render them at greater risk of child sex work and trafficking. Assignment: Risks for Child Protection of Sexual Abuse WorksheetIn fact, crisis and emergency response programs view sexual exploitation and sexual violence as umbrella terms that encompass a ‘variety of harmful and sexually abusive behaviors,’ including all forms of sexual abuse, sexual assault, pornography, prostitution, trafficking for sexual purposes, sex tourism, early and forced marriage, and enslavement.[43] Problems of trafficking are intensified in situ ations of humanitarian emergency and that vulnerable or displaced populations are likely to be preyed on by traffickers; and that in the absence of protection measures people, including children, will resort to low-paid labor and exploitation.[44] In such situations, vulnerable populations, such as children are at risk of sex trafficking, including sexual exploitation or forced labor with major health and well-being risks for victims.[45] Children, or rather adolescents, also in search of improved lives and opportunities, but lacking access to (information on) mitigation programs and are therefore vulnerable to trafficking for sexual exploitation or forced labor, not only during but even in the aftermath of the crisis.[46] Furthermore, the evidence for how economic crisis specifically, renders children vulnerable to sex work, trafficking, and prostitution can be found in several countries such as Cuba,[47] Indonesia,[48] and Brazil.[49] Child marriage As per its definition, child marriage occurs when at least one of the spouses is below the age of 18 years, a child, as defined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, it has been argued that the definition should extend to viewing all child marriage as forced marriage, even when the child appears to give his or her consent.[50] According to research from several countries, on the transactional costs of marriage in the developing world,[51] and other studies,[52] childhood poverty is closely associated with marriage during adolescence. It shows that while both bride price and dowry commoditize the value of girls, bride price is more beneficial to girls than dowry. In South Asia, the later a girl marries, the higher the price her family has to pay,[51] and this is one of the reasons why girls living in poor households are almost twice as likely to be married before the age of 18 years, compared to those in higher income families.[53] Cash and asset transfer programs aimed at reducing child marriage are, in fact, based on the premise that increase in household income will enable parents with low resources to delay marrying their daughters.[54] Studies from Africa and South Asia also show that in addition to traditions and gender-discriminatory norms rooted in patriarchal values and ideologies, poverty, economic instability, and conflict and humanitarian crisis are root causes and exacerbating factors contributing to child marriage.[55],[56],[57] Despite substantial declines in child marriage in India, in recent years, 27% of girls are still married off before they are 18 years of age,[58] for reasons relating to poverty, perceptions of the girl child as being an economic burden, lack of awareness and education, thus rendering child marriage a continued child protection concern. In the wake of the COVID-19 crisis and its adverse economic impact on the most vulnerable households, there is the risk of child marriage increasing. This claim is supported by evidence from ot …  Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10 Order NowjQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘’, {action: ‘wpt_view_count’, id: ‘20661’});});jQuery(document).ready(function($) { $.post(‘’, {action: ‘mts_view_count’, id: ‘20661’});});

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